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Working out Smart
The treadmill burns the most calories of any of the cardiovascular machines available at most gyms, says Alexander. You can expect to burn about calories per mile, walking briskly. Stamford notes that a treadmill can be adapted to many different fitness levels by increasing the speed from walking to running or by adjusting the incline.
But even walking may be too much for someone who is overweight and has joint pain. Every time your foot hits the ground, says Alexander, "the impact forces are 3.
Since a treadmill is moving under you, the impact may be slightly less than that. One more thing to keep in mind: Treadmills can pose a real balance challenge for new exercisers or those who haven't worked out in a while, says Matthew Vukovich, exercise physiologist and associate professor at South Dakota State University. These machines pack a little less punch on the joints, and either can be a good alternative to the treadmill, says Vukovich. Because you use them in a standing position, you're using lots of muscle mass, so the calorie burn rate is still pretty high.
Elliptical machines with arm components can further increase the numbers of calories you burn, says Stamford. All our experts agree that the stationary bike offers the workout with the least impact on the joints.
People with knee pain are often steered toward these bikes, since the impact of body weight is not a concern as it is on a treadmill, elliptical trainer, or stair stepper. But to avoid knee strain, you must make sure the bike is adjusted to fit your body, Vukovich says. Most people sit too low, meaning their knees flex too much as they pedal. This can put too much pressure on the knee and result in soreness, warn Vukovich. The stationary bike is a less intense calorie-burner than some of the other machines.
You'll need to pedal four miles to burn calories, says Alexander. Rowers are more advanced cardiovascular machines. Because you must push with the legs while you pull with the arms, rowers require coordination. They also you require you to engage your core abdominal muscles to support and protect your back. Because they use so many muscle groups, rowers burn lots of calories. But this machine has several red flags for a beginning or unfit exerciser.
Extra weight often comes with back pain , and this is not a machine you want to use if you have back issues, he says. Choose a machine that feels right.
If impact is a problem, the stationary bicycle may be a better choice than the treadmill. More muscle use equals more calorie burn. The basic rule of thumb is that the machine that exercises the greatest muscle mass burns the most calories. There's a flip side of that coin, too: If you're a beginner, using more muscles means getting fatigued sooner -- which will result in burning fewer calories. Try using a pre-programmed workout that includes variations in speed and intensity.
Or vary those factors yourself during your workout. The Illinois Department of Public Health reports that hepatitis C is spread by blood, putting health care workers, IV drug users and those who received blood transfusions prior to at highest risk. Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccines. A healthy liver aids the digestion of fats and proteins, regulates sex hormones, breaks down toxins in the bloodstream and removes excess red blood cells.
Chronic alcohol abuse taxes the liver, causing accumulation of fatty deposits, which become inflamed, leading to alcoholic hepatitis. The American Liver Foundation states that 35 percent of heavy drinkers develop this condition. If drinking continues, healthy liver tissue is gradually replaced by non-functioning scar tissue, a process known as cirrhosis. Abdominal swelling and tenderness, loss of appetite and nausea may characterize alcoholic liver disease.
Obesity, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The disorder generally follows the same course as alcoholic liver disease, however patients may be non-drinkers. The National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse advises that many people with NASH do not have symptoms of fatigue and upset stomach until liver damage is advanced.
Losing weight, eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help you manage NASH. Regular medical care is also needed to control the effects of this disease. The entire family of cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins can damage your liver.
Regular blood tests can detect changes and avoid the development of an associated muscle wasting condition known as rhabdomyolysis. Symptoms may include stiffness, swelling and tenderness in the large muscles of the legs and back, dark urine, rapid heart rate, fever, nausea and vomiting.
Liver impairment or failure can also result from long-term use or high doses of other medications, including over the counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen.
Toxic effects of these medications can cause jaundice, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite. Video of the Day.