Malnutrition

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Closest monitor was 3. Rate includes postal charges under certificate of posting by surface mail. Lee's Summit vs Johnson County? Global and regional exposures and health consequences". The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem. I think he is ready, lena. One of the most recent and powerful global policies to reduce hunger and poverty are the Sustainable Development Goals.

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The World Bank and some wealthy donor countries also press nations that depend on aid to cut or eliminate subsidized agricultural inputs such as fertilizer, in the name of free market policies even as the United States and Europe extensively subsidized their own farmers. There are a number of potential disruptions to global food supply that could cause widespread malnutrition.

Global warming is of importance to food security, with 95 percent of all malnourished peoples living in the relatively stable climate region of the sub-tropics and tropics. According to the latest IPCC reports, temperature increases in these regions are "very likely. For example, the — central Asian drought brought about an 80 percent livestock loss and 50 percent reduction in wheat and barley crops in Iran.

An increase in extreme weather such as drought in regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa would have even greater consequences in terms of malnutrition.

Even without an increase of extreme weather events, a simple increase in temperature reduces the productivity of many crop species, also decreasing food security in these regions. Colony collapse disorder is a phenomenon where bees die in large numbers. The effort to bring modern agricultural techniques found in the West, such as nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, to Asia, called the Green Revolution , resulted in decreases in malnutrition similar to those seen earlier in Western nations.

This was possible because of existing infrastructure and institutions that are in short supply in Africa, such as a system of roads or public seed companies that made seeds available. However, after the government changed policy and subsidies for fertilizer and seed were introduced against World Bank strictures, farmers produced record-breaking corn harvests as production leaped to 3.

New technology in agricultural production also has great potential to combat undernutrition. The World Bank itself claims to be part of the solution to malnutrition, asserting that the best way for countries to succeed in breaking the cycle of poverty and malnutrition is to build export-led economies that will give them the financial means to buy foodstuffs on the world market.

There is a growing realization among aid groups that giving cash or cash vouchers instead of food is a cheaper, faster, and more efficient way to deliver help to the hungry, particularly in areas where food is available but unaffordable. However, for people in a drought living a long way from and with limited access to markets, delivering food may be the most appropriate way to help.

By the time it arrives in the country and gets to people, many will have died. Ethiopia has been pioneering a program that has now become part of the World Bank's prescribed method for coping with a food crisis and had been seen by aid organizations as a model of how to best help hungry nations.

Through the country's main food assistance program, the Productive Safety Net Program, Ethiopia has been giving rural residents who are chronically short of food, a chance to work for food or cash. Foreign aid organizations like the World Food Program were then able to buy food locally from surplus areas to distribute in areas with a shortage of food. City residents separate organic waste from their garbage, bag it, and then exchange it for fresh fruit and vegetables from local farmers.

As a result, the country's waste is reduced and the urban poor get a steady supply of nutritious food. Restricting population size is a proposed solution. Thomas Malthus argued that population growth could be controlled by natural disasters and voluntary limits through "moral restraint. Instead, these theorists point to unequal distribution of resources and under- or unutilized arable land as the cause for malnutrition problems. This applies not only to organizing rationing and control, but also to undertaking work programmes and other methods of increasing purchasing power for those hit by shifts in exchange entitlements in a general inflationary situation.

One suggested policy framework to resolve access issues is termed food sovereignty —the right of peoples to define their own food, agriculture, livestock, and fisheries systems, in contrast to having food largely subjected to international market forces. Food First is one of the primary think tanks working to build support for food sovereignty. Neoliberals advocate for an increasing role of the free market.

Another possible long term solution would be to increase access to health facilities to rural parts of the world. These facilities could monitor undernourished children, act as supplemental food distribution centers, and provide education on dietary needs. These types of facilities have already proven very successful in countries such as Peru and Ghana.

As of is estimated that about , deaths of children less than five years old could be prevented globally per year through more widespread breastfeeding. The medical community recommends exclusively breastfeeding infants for 6 months, with nutritional whole food supplementation and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or older for overall optimal health outcomes.

Breastfeeding is noted as one of the most cost effective medical interventions for providing beneficial child health. Food security and global malnutrition has long been a topic of international concern, with one of the first official global documents addressing it being the Universal Declaration of Human Rights UDHR. Within this document it stated that access to food was part of an adequate right to a standard of living. The Right to food is a human right for people to feed themselves in dignity, be free from hunger, food insecurity, and malnutrition.

However, after the International Covenant the global concern for the access to sufficient food only became more present, leading to the first ever World Food Conference that was held in in Rome, Italy.

Ultimately this document outline and provided guidance as to how the international community as one could work towards fighting and solving the growing global issue of malnutrition and hunger.

Adoption of the right to food was included in the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the area of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights , this document was adopted by many countries in the Americas, the purpose of the document is, "to consolidate in this hemisphere, within the framework of democratic institutions, a system of personal liberty and social justice based on respect for the essential rights of man.

The next document in the timeline of global inititaves for malnutrition was the Rome Declaration on World Food Security , organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization. This document reaffirmed the right to have access to safe and nutritous food by everyone, also considering that everyone gets sufficient food, and set the goals for all nations to improve their commitment to food security by halfing their amount of undernourished people by One of the most recent and powerful global policies to reduce hunger and poverty are the Sustainable Development Goals.

In particular Goal 2: Zero hunger sets globally agreed targets to end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. In April , the Food Assistance Convention was signed, the world's first legally binding international agreement on food aid.

The May Copenhagen Consensus recommended that efforts to combat hunger and malnutrition should be the first priority for politicians and private sector philanthropists looking to maximize the effectiveness of aid spending. They put this ahead of other priorities, like the fight against malaria and AIDS. The EndingHunger campaign is an online communication campaign aimed at raising awareness of the hunger problem. It has many worked through viral videos depicting celebrities voicing their anger about the large number of hungry people in the world.

Another initiative focused on improving the hunger situation by improving nutrition is the Scaling up Nutrition movement SUN. Started in this movement of people from governments, civil society, the United Nations, donors, businesses and researchers, publishes a yearly progress report on the changes in their 55 partner countries.

In response to child malnutrition, the Bangladeshi government recommends ten steps for treating severe malnutrition. They are to prevent or treat dehydration , low blood sugar , low body temperature , infection, correct electrolyte imbalances and micronutrient deficiencies, start feeding cautiously, achieve catch-up growth, provide psychological support, and prepare for discharge and follow-up after recovery.

Among those who are hospitalized, nutritional support improves protein, calorie intake and weight. The evidence for benefit of supplementary feeding is poor. Specially formulated foods do however appear useful in those from the developing world with moderate acute malnutrition.

In those who are severely malnourished, feeding too much too quickly can result in refeeding syndrome. Manufacturers are trying to fortify everyday foods with micronutrients that can be sold to consumers such as wheat flour for Beladi bread in Egypt or fish sauce in Vietnam and the iodization of salt. For example, flour has been fortified with iron, zinc, folic acid and other B vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B Treating malnutrition, mostly through fortifying foods with micronutrients vitamins and minerals , improves lives at a lower cost and shorter time than other forms of aid , according to the World Bank.

In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily zinc increases the chances of reducing the severity and duration of the diarrhea, and continuing with daily zinc for ten to fourteen days makes diarrhea less likely recur in the next two to three months. In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. For a malnourished child with diarrhea from any cause, this should include foods rich in potassium such as bananas, green coconut water, and unsweetened fresh fruit juice.

The World Health Organization WHO recommends rehydrating a severely undernourished child who has diarrhea relatively slowly. The preferred method is with fluids by mouth using a drink called oral rehydration solution ORS.

The oral rehydration solution is both slightly sweet and slightly salty and the one recommended in those with severe undernutrition should have half the usual sodium and greater potassium.

Fluids by nasogastric tube may be use in those who do not drink. Intravenous fluids are recommended only in those who have significant dehydration due to their potential complications.

These complications include congestive heart failure. This switch from type of fluid to amount of fluid was crucial in order to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Breast feeding and eating should resume as soon as possible. To prevent dehydration readily available fluids, preferably with a modest amount of sugars and salt such as vegetable broth or salted rice water, may be used.

The drinking of additional clean water is also recommended. Once dehydration develops oral rehydration solutions are preferred.

As much of these drinks as the person wants can be given, unless there are signs of swelling. If vomiting occurs, fluids can be paused for 5—10 minutes and then restarting more slowly.

Vomiting rarely prevents rehydration as fluid are still absorbed and the vomiting rarely last long. For babies a dropper or syringe without the needle can be used to put small amounts of fluid into the mouth; for children under 2, a teaspoon every one to two minutes; and for older children and adults, frequent sips directly from a cup.

After the first two hours of rehydration it is recommended that to alternate between rehydration and food. Malnourished children have an excess of body sodium. Hypoglycemia , whether known or suspected, can be treated with a mixture of sugar and water.

If the child is conscious, the initial dose of sugar and water can be given by mouth. If seizures occur after despite glucose, rectal diazepam is recommended. Blood sugar levels should be re-checked on two hour intervals. To prevent or treat this, the child can be kept warm with covering including of the head or by direct skin-to-skin contact with the mother or father and then covering both parent and child. Prolonged bathing or prolonged medical exams should be avoided. Warming methods are usually most important at night.

The figures provided in this section on epidemiology all refer to undernutrition even if the term malnutrition is used which, by definition, could also apply to too much nutrition. There were million undernourished people in the world in Malnutrition, as of , was the cause of 1.

Mortality due to malnutrition accounted for 58 percent of the total mortality in In protein-energy malnutrition resulted in , deaths down from , deaths in According to the World Health Organization, malnutrition is the biggest contributor to child mortality , present in half of all cases. Poor or non-existent breastfeeding causes another 1. Other deficiencies, such as lack of vitamin A or zinc , for example, account for 1 million. Malnutrition in the first two years is irreversible.

Malnourished children grow up with worse health and lower education achievement. Their own children tend to be smaller. Malnutrition was previously [ when? This helps their communities have more balanced diets and become more resilient to pests and drought. Finger millet is very high in calcium, rich in iron and fiber, and has a better energy content than other cereals. These characteristics make it ideal for feeding to infants and the elderly.

Exposure to the media was also found to be a significant determinant. Providing appropriate information may be a crucial determinant of sound feeding practices.

Efforts to eradicate malnutrition should include the broader goals of improving knowledge related to childhood nutrition and IYCF practices. With more than million hungry people, India has the largest number of hungry in the world. Malnutrition in children and women remains as one of the greatest challenges in India. Malnutrition remains a major threat to the survival, growth and development of children. The overall objective of the nationwide information, education and communication campaign against malnutrition is to address issues of status of women, the care of pregnant mothers and children under two, breastfeeding and the importance of balanced nutrition, health.

The Ministry of Women and Child Development has come up with several schemes deciding the norms of child nutrition. The survey collected extensive information on population, health, and nutrition, with an emphasis on women and young children.

All the state-level and national-level reports for the survey have already been published 48 reports in all. The second National Family Health Survey NFHS-2 was conducted in in all 26 states of India with added features on the quality of health and family planning services, domestic violence, reproductive health, anemia, the nutrition of women, and the status of women.

The results of the survey are currently being published. Eighteen Research Organizations including five Population Research Centres carried out the survey in 29 states of India. Like its predecessors, NFHS-4 will be conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, coordinated by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, and implemented by a group of survey organizations and Population Research Centres, following a rigorous selection procedure.

In addition to the 29 states, NFHS-4 will also include all six union territories for the first time and will also provide estimates of most indicators at the district level for all districts in the country as per the census. This is expected to yield a total sample of , women and 93, men eligible for the interview. In these households information on , children below age 5 will be collected in the survey.

NFHS- will provide updates and evidence of trends in key population, health and nutrition indicators, including HIV prevalence. Moreover, the survey will cover a range of health-related issues, including fertility, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, perinatal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, high-risk sexual behaviour, safe injections, tuberculosis, and malaria, non-communicable diseases, domestic violence, HIV knowledge, and attitudes toward people living with HIV.

Biomaker Household Mans Womans. Key Findings Report The survey is based on a sample of households which is representative at the National and State levels. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. These Fact Sheets presents provisional information on key indicators and trends at the national level.

State Reports of the following States have been released and key findings disseminated in their respective State capitals. The Seminar Presentations of the key findings for different states are also available online. A quarter of India's population lives below what has been termed a 'starvation line'. Why have foodgrain and calorieconsumption actually fallen in the last 15 years of structural adjustment? Why have foodgrain and calorie consumption actually fallen in the last 15 years of structural.

The World Bank Keywords: Drawing on qualitative studies and quantitative evidence from large household surveys, this book explores the dimensions of child undernutrition in India and examines the effectiveness of the Integrated Child Development Services ICDS program, India's main early child development intervention, in addressing it.

Although levels of undernutrition in India declined modestly during the s, the reductions lagged behind those achieved by other countries with similar economic growth. Nutritional inequalities across different states and socioeconomic and demographic groups remain large. Although the ICDS program appears to be well-designed and well-placed to address the multi-dimensional causes of malnutrition in India, several problems exist that prevent it from reaching its potential.

The book concludes with a discussion of a number of concrete actions that can be taken to bridge the gap between the policy intentions of ICDS and its actual implementation. Each country profile is structured under the following sub-headings: Population Consumer segmentation Households Household segmentation Labour Income Consumer expenditures Food and non-alcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages and tobacco Clothing and footwear Housing Household goods and services Transport Communications Leisure and recreation Education Hotels and catering Miscellaneous goods and services The information in this report was gathered from a wide range of sources, starting with national statistics offices.

This information was cross-checked for consistency, probability and mathematical accuracy. Secondly, we sought to fill in the gaps in the official national statistics by using private-sector surveys and official pan-regional and global sources. Furthermore, Euromonitor International has carried out an extensive amount of modelling in order to come up with interesting data sets to complement the national standards available.

The wide range of sources used in the compilation of this report means that there are occasional discrepancies in the data, which we were not able to reconcile in every instance.

Even when the data is produced by the same national statistical office on a specific parameter, like the total Population in a particular year, discrepancies can occur depending on whether it was derived from a survey, a national census or a projection and whether the data is based on mid-year or January figures.

For slow trends where it is interesting to look at a long period as well as projections, data is presented for , , , , and Fast-moving trends are illustrated with data sets relating to , , , and Initiation of Breastfeeding by Breast Crawl visit breastcrawl.

Every newborn, when placed on the mother's abdomen, soon after birth, has the ability to find its mother's breast all on its own and to decide when to take the first breastfeed. This is called the "Breast Crawl". This method is evidence based and has been field tested by us.

A documentary on the "Breast Crawl" has been prepared for training, advocacy and for wider dissemination. The video has created a very high level of sensitivity among all the levels of functionaries and was officially endorsed by senior policy makers as the right approach for initiating breastfeeding. This dossier provides the background and a scientific overview to the documentary. We are sure that this documentary and dossier will greatly help similar initiatives worldwide.

It is our strong desire that this information helps every mother and baby to experience the miracle of Breast Crawl. This can be achieved by training all health care providers to initiate breastfeeding, by Breast Crawl, to give infants the best start in life. And yet, so many of them die. To lose a newborn life like this is heartbreaking.

Especially when we know that such tragedies can be prevented. We strongly believe that if a mother's health is attended to, if she receives basic nutrition, health care and education in her formative years as well as during pregnancy, then newborn babies would not have to die.

WHO is providing technical support to the national scale up of counselling and testing services including monitoring and evaluation of the programme. Operational guidelines for ICTC Several informative and low-priced books and journals are brought out by the Institute in English as well as in some regional languages.

These publications contain the quintessence of Institute's research endeavors over the years. To popularise these publications among people, a short write-up describing the essential features of these publications is given below. It contains a simple account of current concepts of nutrition science, nutritional chemistry of major food groups and nutritional deficiency diseases. In addition, the book incorporates latest information on nutritional requirement and recommended dietary allowances and on the guidelines for formulating healthy, balanced diets.

This book is a must for all those who wish to know more about nutritive value of foods including students, medical and health professionals, planners as well as general public.

Nationwide surveys have revealed a wide prevalence of malnutrition among mothers and children, mainly belonging to the underprivileged sections of society.

The book discusses in-depth the nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating mothers, infants and pre-school aged children. Several types of low-cost nutritious recipes are described in the book after thoroughly testing these foods in the community for acceptability and tolerance.

It is hoped that this low priced informative book will serve the dual purpose of training the health personnel and educating the average Indian housewife in ensuring better health for herself and her child. This book contains such updated information on the protein energy requirements, definition of quantum and type of fat intakes and other related themes.

In addition, ADA for some other nutrients like fat-soluble vitamins, trace elements and electrolytes are also listed. The book is a good reference guide especially for policy makers and researchers. The details pertaining to cooking methods and nutritive value of these recipes will help housewives to plan healthy menus for the family and also assist in formulating nutritious school lunches and community feeding programmes.

Hostels, restaurants and cafeterias can take a few dietary tips from this book. This booklet discusses the principles governing the formulation of these recipes and lists out several food supplements for infants and young children. Most of these recipes are based on coarse cereals, legumes and other locally available foods. This low priced booklet will help mothers to plan healthy diets for their children in the most economical way.

Ingredients used in the preparation of these recipes are inexpensive and method of cooking described is simple. These two low priced booklets will help in strengthening the school meal programmes operational in some parts of the country. Though a variety of fruits are grown and consumed in the country, the prevalence of micronutrient malnutrition is alarmingly high among people.

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