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Explore over 4, video courses. Your daily life becomes a built-in way to increase flexibility and mobility, and stop injuries from bad stretching and movement habits. This is great for you since we just released our third edition. I love the sound of brain cells rubbing together. Lib is a company dedicated to the dissemination of scientific information by offering online access to the content of eBooks, eJournals and databases in all relevant subject areas.

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Vous cherchez de brèves informations sur la production, l'utilisation agricole, les pratiques de gestion et les propriétés chimiques des engrais couramment utilisés? Rédigés par les scientifiques de IPNI, ces articles sont principalement destinés pour un usage éducatif à des lecteurs non spécialistes du domaine. Consultez un expert local concernant des recommandations spécifiques sur l'utilisation des éléments nutritifs. Escritas por personal científico del IPNI, se enfocan principalmente para uso educacional dirigido a una audiencia general.

Para recomendaciones específicas de su uso, por favor consulte con su agrónomo o especialista local. Handbook for personnel in charge of plantation development. Includes guidelines on land preparation for planting surveying, land clearing, platform construction, legume cover and procedures for immature maintenance weeding, nutrient management and census activities.

Handbook for personnel in charge of operations in mature plantings. Topics cover harvesting and delivery efficiency, weeding, nutrient management, mulching with empty fruit bunches, canopy management and pruning, and to a lesser extend pest and diseases. Handbook for personnel in charge of nursery management. Includes specific instructions and information on site selection and preparation, irrigation, transplanting, monitoring seedling performance and deficiency symptoms.

This pocket-sized edition of the Immature Handbook contains all relevant information needed by field staff to implement best management practices related to land preparation for planting and procedures for immature maintenance. This pocket-sized edition of the Immature Handbook contains all relevant information needed by field staff to implement best management practices in mature plantings.

This pocket-sized edition of the Nursery Handbook contains all relevant information needed by field staff to implement best management practices in oil palm nurseries.

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The Guide includes a large annex with pictures of nutrient deficiency symptoms. The objective of the Site-Specific Management Guidelines series is to provide a mechanism to assemble expert knowledge in a timely fashion on site-specific management in a form useful to farmers and their advisers. Each Guideline addresses a specific issue related to site-specific soil and crop management. Currently there are 45 titles in the series, which can be accessed from the list below.

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This book presents the important concepts of soil fertility management in an easy-to-understand format. Full-color photographs, tables and charts are used throughout the book so that readers can quickly grasp the underlying principles of soil fertility. The Soil Fertility Manual was first published in Since then, agriculture has seen many changes, such as adoption of conservation tillage, biotechnology, precision farming, and others.

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The Summary Update provides interpretive analysis of the results of the most recent survey of soil test levels for North America. This website provides new opportunities to view, compare, and contrast soil fertility data over the four most recent surveys , , and The site also provides full access to a range of charts, maps, and tabular data sets. Southern Forages was first introduced in and has since gained wide recognition as a practical and reliable source of information on modern forage crop management.

The Fifth Edition of Southern Forages, released in February, , is an even more valuable book, with extensive chapter revisions, topic updates, and other improvements. The more we searched for information on coffee quality, the more we realized that a superb cup of coffee depends on a complex of processes along the supply chain that allows little margin for error at any stage. Furthermore, as so often occurs when personal preferences and tastes are involved in defining quality, the process of producing magnificent coffees is as much an art as a science.

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For those who want to build their forearms, the information is in the arm training specialization workout — but only a fraction of people buy that compared to Train Smart. Yeah, I sort of wondered that maybe you didnt put it in your full body workouts because people just dont do forearm exercises. Which is kinda sad in my opinion, because as you said in your free report forearms are one of the most noticed bodyparts.

Hi Ken, Sorry for the late reply, thank you for your kind words of encouragement and sound advise! My grip strength have increased greatly, I can lift now kilos dead lift and on the shrug, did that one twice.. Hi Greg or Pete, Sorry if this sounds stupid but please could you explain to me why a standing bicep curl is better than a seated one. We say seated is better. We tested a few dozen experienced lifters and they scored better on average with the seated position. Standing was a very close second.

I have my own gym with squat cage and olympics bar with wight up to kg. I going to start training according to your program and did my first bench yesterday static hold with kg. I will have to get some more plates soon. I have been lifting for almost 30yrs and I feel broken from all my hard work. Your program gives me new inspiration and I think this time I will achieve my goals.

Looking forward to your reply. Hey, anything you do — including washing your car or cutting your lawn — will impact recovery somewhat.

You never get something for nothing and all those other activities add to what your body has to deal with. That said, you can do whatever other activities you need to do and still train with SCT because you have meaningful numbers to tell you whether or not you got enough rest between SCT workouts. You can get an idea how to adjust your frequency from this article: Hi Pete, I am increasing the weights all the time, however, my bench press and close grip just stopped progressing.

Is it possible to increase in all areas and not improve in one or two? Am I maybe stressing my muscles too much doing close grip on the one day and 8 days later doing the bench press?

I look forward to your comments and those of the other guys as well. Soon some areas lag, usually because they need more rest. Just leave chest and triceps off your program for one cycle and see what happens when you try them again.

Now i would like to purchase one of your books. Can you tell what would be the best material for me? John, try the power factor routine. The problem is, and its the problem most our trainees have, is that they gain strength so quickly that they quickly outgrow the machines at the gym.

I doubt your home gym will be able to keep up with your strength gains. Hi Pete and Greg, I was just wondering, what should I do to strengthen my wrists?

I find that on pushing exercises I naturally curl my wrists to be able to lift the weights. In most cases though this results in the wrists giving out before the targeted muscle. Is there any thing I could do strengthen my wrists or is it just the same as strengthening the forearms? Rama, try to keep your wrist straight when you do the push. Think of it this way….. If you bend your wrist when you punch, you can and will hurt it, and possibly even break it because the force will not be supported by the bones in your arm.

Do the same with the static lifts. Well I dont know why but I felt I am able to push more this way…. I thought it might have to do with the smith machines in my current gym I never had this problem in the previous gym I went to. Thank you in advance for your answers. Les, it could be that your crunch is not as heavy as it should be. I know I can easily use the whole weight stack of any crunch machine that they have at the gym without so much as breaking a sweat.

So you may have to look at that. Some guys just find it harder to put muscle on the chest. That will definitely tax the fibers and the enzymes in the muscle and will push them to hypertrophy. Hi Pete, I have been practicing static and now power factor since when I purchased your Train Smart e-book.

I know there is a slight difference on on the triceps and pecs betwen the two lifts, but it seems that, basically the pecs, front delts and triceps are working hard in both workouts, causing a need for more recovery between workouts.

I have experimented, regrouping the exercises with many different arrangements and like your XFT, 3 day split where the legs are one day, pulls another day and pushes on a 3rd workout. Me and my brother are going to be living proof that this works, bring on the weights! Rene, congratulations on your results and welcome to the world of static contraction.

Now, I train once every 3 weeks and I never lose my muscle. Its an amazing feeling not to be tied to a gym anymore. Thanks for spreading the good word. With your help I believe static contraction will take off around the world! They are on different days because they are so similar. Most people have no trouble making steady progress with this split. If they did not I might suggest the A,B,C split but it is rarely needed. I had to laugh when I read it again. What would be so impressive about that?

Pete or Greg, I have an equipment question. When doing close grip bench or curls, a straight bar really hurts my wrists so I use an EZ curl bar. The problem is that it is too short for the spread of pins on the power rack. I have used a regular bench with a narrow spread and would keep the bar above the racks, but with really heavy weight it can obviously be dangerous. Do you have any other suggestions?

I usually work out alone. How to train forearms? Pete are you still selling that jackhammer product or what else can I get? I never sold it, it was made by the folks who make the 1 ton hooks.

They recently stopped making it. Hi Pete, can I have both? You can have both but they require different exercises. Grip machines are hard to find. A few years ago I started doing sct for forearms. No hanging my hands off a bench and curling my wrists, the weight I wanted to use was too heavy.

I would lift the heaviest dumbell I could hold, hang it from my side or maybe lean against the dumbell rack so the dumbell hangs down a little in front of me. Then I would simply tighten my grip a pull it up tight. Very, very little movement. My arm size and strength blew up in very short time. So, I made my own adjustable kettlebell with plumbing parts. In fact it kind of resembles the hammer strength thingy you advertise. Just has no moveable parts. I can probably send a pic if you need.

It looked like a handle with a pipe hanging down. You would load the pipe with weight then squeeze the handle. I have had the same issue. I have done three different things, and I have to say that the third one is giving me the most gains. Usually, when I ask for help, I do get the questions, and then I simply refer them to this site.

Remember your form, I like to use the Scott curl bench for this. For me this has been a great change for my biceps. My endurance has increased and I notice too, that my tolerance for heavier weights with the straight bar has gotten better too. Thanks Rob, Sorry for the misunderstanding but I was referring more to the triceps close grip bench press.

And, yes, I do also like power factor training but still can go heavy enough that I would prefer some sort of safety device like the power rack.

There is no one to ask for help, I work out in my own gym at odd hours. I use it to great comfort for my wrists. FYI, they also make a shrug bar and Gripper machine. Should have it ready in a few days. I am pretty good at the mile: My question is this. When does everyone work out at the gym? This question is preventing me from doing this workout. Try some Beta workouts. I got your PFW. I understand the Alpha training, but in Beta training do you just not increase weight but just increase duration?

So the entire excersize for each muscle is just like one really long set?? Hey KC, I work out at night, but I am a night owl and I have always enjoyed training in the wee hours. I know that some guys on here work out in the afternoon and evening and have either come to enjoy the stares or learned to ignore them. Just experiment and find a time that works best for you. You can get stronger in Alpha strength and you measure that with the Power Factor. You can get stronger in Beta strength and you measure that with the Power Index.

Perhaps you can go to your gym at some different times, and figure out when the quiet period is and train then. I had to wait for someone to finish on the power-rack yesterday, then I was effectively hogging it for a while chest and lower back. Like I said, no other training or exertion so my body is purely resting. So my scores went way down, because the 40rep effort sucked — maybe I was struggling too much with the kg weight it kinda felt heavy!

So should I drop it down to kg or 90kg and focus on getting the reps up higher? I love this workout, buying your book was a great investment! When I go home at night after one of these workouts, I am so drained that I actually have to take a nap and also go to bed early lol!

Is it better to work this program alone, or with a partner? But I did want to know if a partner was good, or not. Other than the leg press, most people use about the same weight as the steroid monsters who train at the gym all day every day. OK…then I do feel better. I like it when my short sleeve tees are tight around the arm.

I like the comments about my chest. So which program would build me the quickest and the biggest without killing me?? But hate to be sore after a workout. The three days of dreading to sit or stand just are not fun. And honestly Pete, how long does it take to really learn this system.

I also hear about timing and reps. How do you do this part? With a stop watch, or what? Or should I just buy the book and find out?? And let us know how you do. Try the Train Smart workout — less wear and tear and soreness. Hi Pete When using a smith machine that does not have the saftey stop things on, is there anyway to improvise saftey stops so that if you lift more than you can re rack on a static contraction lift it wont all come falling down on you?

You Might have misunderstood me, it has the saftey catches all the way up that the bar rests on but it doesnt have those saftey stop things that you can adjust so that the bar cannot pass a certain point.

Sorry for being unclear do you see what I mean though now. But serious, why would anyone want to train to get old wear and tear , when we can get younger? Anyhow, I waited 10 days between workouts and felt the last workout was really heavy. I added 2 days and the workout yesterday was lesser heavy. Can I say that? I really felt strong and gained in every exercise! I want to let people know about SCT, how good it really works. When i think back, just months ago I really thought I never would train, ever, like I really hated training overall traditional weighttraining, Yuck!

To all who hesitate, just do it and feel it for yourselves! Nothing to lose, except your excessive fat! The smith machines at my gym do have the safety stops and I make sure they are set prior to lifting anything!

I mainly train on Saturdays anytime between 1: Most gyms are not that busy at that time. I do have a workout partner, but when I am on my own I pretty much have the run of the place. Plus, you will get to a point quickly where you are working out strength training less and less. I gained every time so far.

Take more time off. Many advanced trainees go weeks between workouts. Your muscle will not evaporate, believe me. Will I still be increasing my speed by doing this workout like I was with the alpha workout? Plus, am I right in saying if you continually try to increase the weight while at the very least doing the same amount of reps you are still going to be increasing alpha strength as well?

Beta workouts are for endurance. Your peak speed might increase but your endurance is sure to. Life is full of trade-offs. You can run fast or you can run a long time, but.

Which workout will help performance on a soccer pitch the most in your opinion Pete, the beta or the alpha workout? Or maybe I could do a 5 sec hold and then do beta reps for 2 minutes like someone else suggested? Brian I have found that the torque that you generate from muscle due to alpha workouts is most useful in the midfield where you are always trying to win the ball and distribute.

Especially, the outside mid who recieves a ball in isolation, pushes a ball in to space and then explodes in to that space, as is often the case, the alpha is the better workout. A striker may benefit better from a beta workout but there too a striker can benefit from the alpha workout that strengthens and stoutly stabilizes quads, calves, hips, feet in challenges on a well placed ball in the open field. I like the stability and torque that you get from an alpha.

Besides soccer is all about letting the ball do the beta workout. Sounds like good advice. I just build the muscles.

But just know that the balance and ability to keep your hips over the ball in a challenge will be greatly enhanced by alpha workouts. As an ex defender a word of caution when going past a player, put as much space as possible between yourself and the defender to reduce the risk of being tripped up, When in a tight situation I find myself slowing down these days just due to self presevation,I just dont fancy hitting the astro turf at full speed.

Try a 45 degree incline and see if it hurts your shoulders. I found the power rack so thats one problem solved!!! I transfered the workout I do on the xf machine to the real gym with real weights for a change and found it harder work plus im feeling aching and stiffnes which I dont feel after using the xf!

Any comments or reasons why please? The new gym does not have barbells-only machines and dumbles up to 80lbs. I do all my lifting on the machines but cannot do the deadlift and shrugs. I did use the 80lbs dumbells but these are now far too light and just wondered whether you had a solution? Would alternating and balancing on one leg and lifting have the same effect? Also, I used the Verticle Row machine for the bench press so will this give me the same results as the BB bench press?

Kindly let me know and many thanks in advance. I always remind people that most gyms have a visitor rate that will let you pay a few bucks and get access to the good stuff. Doing lifts with one leg on the ground is inviting injury. However, here are some ways to cheat machines: The graphs on the spreadsheet show big improvements. But today, an extra 5kg of strength, awesome. So I meant to try kg for the peak, but I counted up the weights on the bar incorrectly! The peak was really tough! I failed to get it off the power-rack bars about 3 times, and then on the 4th try I got it up.

And as for the PFT results, this is absolutely fantastic, continued improvement over time. A summary so you can see the improvements: On this article about the genetics between the 2 models that you commented on,that no matter what the guy on the right does he will never be as the guy on the left.

I also agree,being a hardgainer type I am more towards the guy on the right than the left. In your power factor training,could I do a little better in mass gains than doing what I am doing now on the train smart routine-beta style? As your chart showed for hardgainers. The power factor article you wrote on had shown to my understanding that PFT looked to be more effective for muscle gains than strength gains,or should I continue watching my numbers.

If that is the case I would rather do a little more volume and see more mass than strength. If that being the case I would order the PFT e-book.

Please let me know what you think about this,and thanks again for your time and help…. In general, if you are a person who does well with higher volume workouts then the PF routine is preferred. When people find it hard to gain muscle with quick, efficient workouts I steer them toward PF because it not only provides more volume it also gives you two ways to measure your intensity and that keeps you on track workout after workout.

On the topic of size vs strength they are directly related — as a muscle gets stronger it gets bigger and vice versa.

The real issue is to make measurable progress every workout. I started out with these numbers: Workout B Lats one arm, easier to do for some reason Chest lbs Deadlift lbs Calves lbs both legs Quads lbs one leg!

You have to try out the exercises which they are shown and some of them you need to adjust to your own physique, cause their can be some difference in where your static hold generates most intensity.

One more tip, 1toonhooks and the pads from newgrip is awesome, and at very low cost in my opinion. Both at this page: Thanks for posting, Rene. I continue to see the same pattern here. People get better at holding heavier weights but they fail to build much muscle or improve their bodies very much. That was my result too and I believe I finally know why……… When one uses a heavier weight during a partial movement the actual resistance on the muscle is less not greater due to the mechanical advantage of the strong range limited range of motion.

The weight used is not as important as the resistance which means weight and leverage. A heavier weight in a smaller range of motion is less effective because you only use the strongest part of the movement. That is why I increased the weight in all of my exercises but looked no better after months of hard training with much heavier poundages. My log book looked great, the numbers were much heavier but I failed to build much visible muscle.

I read similiar stories here often. So, if you want to keep measuring your progress by holding heavier and heavier weights this is the program for you but I do not think it will ever build an impressive physique. Is it possible, just possible, you and some others did something wrong in your training that prevented your muscle growth?

I can see results on my body, tightened and I definitely see it on my arms 13 inch to I can see my chest is also growing slowly, and my legs. Some people have the advantage of having a physique genetics? My chest opened-a-can of whoopass after 20 days of rest with to lbs! I found my rythm and are doing things right. An inch on each bicep last time I measured. I eat a good amount of calories and lots of protein so maybe the answer lies in diet?

The funny thing is my muscles are growing in size but I could care less. I am a solid pounds and am happy with my build for the most part. I just want to get stronger. I have never experienced consistent gains like this and I love it. Also, I wonder if some trainees are comparing their muscular development to those that are using heavy dosages of anabolic steroids.

The majority of individuals you see on the infomercials or in the muscle mags are juicing. Heck most of the guys in your local gym are juicing. I think people have to get their minds wrapped around the fact that there are no shortcuts when it comes to putting on muscle safely. Even top bodybuilders, loaded to the gills with steroids AND blessed with great genetics, take years to get to that level of freaky development. For me personally, if I am making steady gains I am satisfied.

Do you have any videos on proper form? Did you get enough rest between workouts? Are you sure all your numbers increase? How many months did you try SCT? How was your diet? For example, it could be that they are doing something wrong. Its like learning how to drive a car. Of course, congrats on the higher lifts and your progress there.

You did not mention whether you were lean or had any weight to lose. There are so many factors when you are trying to change your physique such as metabolism, body fat level, lifestyle, age, ilness, stress, even food intake I know Pete has mixed feelings on this one…wink.

I would advise you give a little more detail to the guys so they can make the appropriate recommendation. Either way, stay educated on what really makes the body change. There are a lot lies, mistruths, and just plain bullshit to sell programs. These guys took the time and tested everything. I seldom find that in other training programs.

Keep the faith and stay with it. Increasing your muscle mass and increasing your regulation bench press are two different goals. You have to decide where your priorities are. If you want a maximum regulation bench press then you have to practice that frequently.

The biggest, most muscular man in the gym was on the next bench over doing multiple sets with He looked much better than I ever will. He was using much lighter poundages on all his exercises and he looked like he could win any state level competition. I looked like a husky guy who could have played football a few years back. I did my curls with He used 35 pound dumbells and his arms were bigger, and more defined than mine.

I concluded that holding heavy weights must not be the answer. How did he get so impressive using such light weights? Last year my 8th grader asked me what exercises he needed to do to get better in football. I answered, workout ALL the muscles you will use, the way you will use them. I asked, for how long an exertion period. He did some research, and it was less than 10 seconds.

I said, How much time between exertions. He said about seconds. I said how many repititions, He said about We then built a workout program based on his stated needs using the XF machine I had purchased years before. High School Football has started. My son is considered the strongest man on the team, and can block the biggest senior tackle and hold him. He is a starting center. He beat out 3 other players to get the position. Figure out what you need for your sport.

Figure out the strength requirements, the exertion period, the time between exertions, and the number of exertions you will need to do. Design your workout based on your sports requirements. Interesting, I went the opposite route. I did my workouts in the gym with real weights and felt like it was a lot more work because of lifting thousands of pounds on and off of bars, and was always sore and stiff. Then I bought an XF machine, and I am rarely sore and stiff, and I am not exhausted from trying to load lbs.

That you are experiencing what I used to experience is just confirmation, to me, that I moved in the right direction. I reccomend you switch back as bending over to lift all of those plates is like doing an extra hundred squats, lifts, … with a hundred lbs.

You will just plain tucker yourself out, stay sore and add a bunch of time to your recovery. On your new machine you are designing, eliminating the pain I feel when doing over , or more lbs.

Maybe I need to put my iPhone on with earphones and put on a metronome app or some other beeping sound so that I can do each rep to a rhythm — this might make my comparisons more accurate. Ringo, why do u need full range bench press? Do u intend to enter one of those weightlifting competitions where u HAVE to lift through a full range? Well there are many reasons.

First of all his diet could be in check, that he ate the right amount of protein and a precise amount of calories per day. Second of all, its genetics. Third, it could be steroids. I mean when I started lifting weights like every other newbie I went up to the jacked up guy with the most impressive muscular physique in the gym. Sure enough, he gave me advice. I followed his advice on training and diet to the letter and it failed for me.

The thing is, Wryley, you could be going up to the most jacked up guy in the gym for advice and you could be doing what he does to the letter, it doesnt mean you can be close to getting the muscular physique that guy has. Would it be wise to do an initial break in period where I get my body back used to training again? I plan on performing the PFW so I could do this by starting low on the weight?

I never got to try PFW before I began the lay-off so I have no idea what weight I can handle for what amount of reps yet anyway. If you want to do Power Factor just start with one set per exercise and record your numbers. I even changed my lat exercise where the singlehand machine exercise not giving me the feeling I needed.

So by switching to the lat barbell exercise I truly felt my lats working with kg with 5 second hold at first attempt! I train every 16 days. Tell me how to insert a graph between workouts A and B otdelnye training of hands? Of A and B, I exercise for arms removed. Workout B Lats barbell madness!

Chest Back Calves Quads one leg. Good gains all in all, and now understanding the full importance of enough rest, I will not be wasting more workouts because of to little recovery time. My life has really improved physically and mentally. So is muscular strength, and THAT is the ONLY factor in successful bench pressing and any other task-specific skill developed by static contraction training. To varying degrees depending on the sport, this is true for all sports. IMO there is generally speaking a bell-curve type size vs.

Pro bodybuilders are the size example, as most of them are nowhere near as strong as they appear. I gain much more size than strength as a result of resistance exercises.

This can be equally frustrating to either group. How I envy you! The longest I could layoff was four months before succumbing to temptation…and to my suprise I had lost 0 strength or size.

The basic idea is to know how many units of exercise you can recover from per day then measure your workouts in those units. I suspect this is due how we use our bodies in our daily lives. Who knows for sure. They primarily get stronger. Almost always using way too light of weights. Well, you might interested to know that I went from to in a very short time,just by doing SCT alone. And nearly all of that weight was muscle.

I would like to emphasize,though, that the workout plan that I used to achieve that goal is actually a modified version of SCT;one that actually defines intensity correctly as it relates to muscle-growth stimulation for the first time in history, that I know of. And once I found that correct definition for intensity, everything else fell into place, just like the pieces of a puzzle; without the contradictions and inconsistencies found in all other workout plans.

I then applied that definition for intensity correctly to each of the motions that the human body can perform with weights, thereby enabling me to achieve maximum intensity and thus maximum muscle growth in all of the muscles that come into play for each of those motions. And the results I obtained are simply beyond the reach of those obtainable by conventional workout plans, that use reps and a full-range of motion.

In fact, the results of this unique,two-pronged approach were so good that I wrote a book about the plan. And I wrote the book, simply because I believe that anyone who has something of great value to share has no right to keep it to himself! How did he get so big using such light weights? Well, consider the fact the that reknowned bodybuilder Mike Mentzer had huge forearm muscles; yet he claimed that he seldom did any direct training for his forearm muscles. So how do you explain that?

Examination of traditional plant assets, long-term liabilities, stockholders equity and current subjects of controversy. Emphasis on income taxes, leases, inflation accounting, cash flow statements, pension accounting, determination of earnings per share and investments.

Fundamentals of federal income taxation with emphasis on individuals. Topics include determination of income, exclusions, exemptions, personal and business deductions, credits, accounting methods, and capital gains and losses. Focus on accountant as information gatherer and interpreter. Includes fundamental elements of production costs, budgeting, standard costs, and analysis of variances relate to interpretation and control of production costs, costing of spoilage, waste and scrap, and activity-based costing.

Characteristics of our economic system and fundamental principles of macroeconomic concepts with applications to agriculture. Effects on agriculture by money and banking systems, monetary and fiscal policies, government policies and international trade.

Introduction to industries and careers that support agriculture. Resources for major exploration incorporating regional professional societies, guest seminars, and university transfer information.

Emphasis is placed on emerging trends in field practice. Examines the practice of agro-ecology: Consequences of historical and current practices and policies will be discussed as well as strengths and weaknesses of alternative practices that seek to employ more knowledge of biology and ecology.

In addition to traditional topics of species identification, biology and timber management, this course examines the sociological, environmental, industrial, and political influences, as well as the economic significance on domestic and international management of forest resources.

Includes a fundamental understanding of precision agriculture; identification and use appropriate hardware and software tools; experience in developing and interpreting prescription maps; effectively use data in management decisions; and understanding of precision agriculture applications in other countries. This internship requires students to apply their knowledge at a local agricultural business or farm.

High School biology or equivalent and High School Chemistry or equivalent with a grade of C or better within the last 5 years. An introduction to plant science and plant physiology spanning the areas of food, ornamental crops and sustainable agriculture.

High School biology or equivalent and High School chemistry or equivalent with a grade of C or better within the last 5 years. Introduction to plant science and plant physiology spanning the areas of food, ornamental crops and sustainable agriculture. Provides opportunities for laboratory application of concepts of plant science using basic research and production practices in plant science.

Principles of animal science including importance of animal agriculture, genetics, anatomy, physiology and nutrition. Introduction to soil sciences with emphasis placed on physical, biological and chemical properties as related to moisture, temperature, drainage and tillage. Applications including land use, plant growth and environmental problems.

Laboratory and computer methods for evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Study of diverse human cultures. Introduction of basic concepts and techniques practiced by cultural anthropologists. Topics include language, kinship, gender, economics, politics, ecology, and religion. Discussion of problems resulting when traditional societies confront industrial societies or industrialization. Introduction to archaeology, with emphasis on scientific methods and procedures, tools, and techniques used by archaeologists to recover information about the past from the material remains.

Survey of common topics, including human evolutionary fossil record, modern physical variations such as race, forensics, and primate behavior and evolution. Examines archaeological discoveries from prehistoric cultures and ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania. Exploration of human achievements from earliest human ancestors to the present to develop understanding of human condition and foundations of modern world.

Study of what archaeology reveals about early religions beyond the information contained in historical texts. Material evidence provides different perspectives on the development, practice, and spread of religions around the world. Focus is on ancient Near East? Introduction to history, geography, society, and culture of Ancient Egypt.

Special emphasis on archaeological remains. A look at how ancient Egypt foundation for the modern world has been studied and portrayed. Investigate what archaeology can add to the study of mythology and of the cultures that created these stories. Topics include both prehistoric and historic time periods from around the world, with a special emphasis on Classical Greece and Rome.

Exploration of practical methods of archaeological survey and excavation needed to learn about past civilizations and cultures. Students will participate in a dig or survey project in St.

Charles County or at a location such as New Mexico or Madagascar. Focuses on contemporary debates in anthropology such as? Did Neanderthals interbreed with modern humans? Is ethnic conflict inevitable? Special emphasis and discussion of current issues in cultural anthropology. Survey of the cultural similarities and differences among the peoples of the Near and Middle East, including historical, ethnological, and contemporary relationships.

General anthropological survey of African cultures and civilizations, past and present, throughout the continent. Basic Arabic language skills includes speaking, listening comprehension, reading and writing, with emphasis on effective linguistic functioning in real situations. Explores cultures of Arabic-speaking countries.

Follow-up to ARB Expanded opportunities for listening to, speaking, reading, and writing Modern Standard Arabic. Continued exploration of culture, with an emphasis on Arab intellectuals, poets and writers. Emphasis remains on linguistic functioning in real situations. Precise and coherent use of Modern Standard Arabic language through development of the speaking, reading, writing and listening skills; more focus on syntax, morphology, and grammar.

Students will take part in meaningful, functional communication that might be encountered in real life complex situations.

Varied reading and writing activities representing cultural topics will be included. Media Arabic will be introduced. Lectures to stimulate visual, emotional and intellectual awareness of humankind's artistic heritage.

Covers historically significant art forms from prehistoric through postmodernism. The course will not fulfill the requirements for a major in art.

Introduction to Macintosh computer platform. Overview of computer hardware, basic factory-installed software. Macintosh operation, troubleshooting, repair, and practices. Input and output devices, such as scanners, digital cameras, video equipment and printers. Focus on introducing students to digital art forms, software programs, and the interrelationship of art and technology.

Introduction to the basic study, use, and control of the art elements and principles of two-dimensional design that are fundamental to all visual arts through assigned problems using readings, discussion and exercises employing a variety of materials and tools. Continue to build mastery in both use and understanding of design elements and principles with specific emphasis on the interaction and application of color in design and exploration of various color theories through a series of exercises.

Introduction to the basic study, use, and control of the art elements and principles that govern three-dimensional design and structure through assigned problems using readings, discussion and exercises designed to employ of a variety of concepts, materials and tools specific to the construction of three-dimensional art making. Introduction to drawing through variety of methods, both traditional and contemporary.

Emphasis placed on analysis of space and form as well as familiarization with and control of drawing material. Introduction to line, perspective, shading, and texture. Continuation of ART reassessing methods and analysis with emphasis on color theory and use of wet and dry media.

Survey art history course focusing on historically significant cultures and forms of art and architecture in Western Civilization. Exploration of the development of human achievements from Prehistory to the end of the Middle Ages. Exploration of the development of human achievements from the Renaissance to the 20th century. This is a survey course on the history of Graphic Design. This course will cover the history and development of visual communication.

It will begin with the development of language and will trace the evolution of word and image throughout history using the works of designers and illustrators that have influenced the continuing development of the discipline. There will be an emphasis on the influence of technology, culture, major artistic movements, and socio-political factors on the evolution of graphic design. Focus on page layout, publication design, and layout techniques covering a range of work, from flyers, brochures, magazines, multi-page publishing as well as electronic formats.

Typography, use of space and traditional industry standards and practices included as well as prepress guidelines for both print and electronic media. Focus of course will stress the refined use of typography as a design and communication tool. Students will study the history and classifications of letter-forms and use it in the creation of various typographical designs and presentations. Typical projects may range from letter and alphabet design to the use of typographical forms as the feature design elements in graphic designs or page layouts.

Projects focus on artwork and logo creation, image correction and adjustment, combining imagery, color correction, etc. Discussion and demonstration of traditional printing technology. Review of legal issues related to digital imagery and freelance design included. Topics include the conceptualization and construction of a variety of web sites, including individual pages, HTML, email, animation, etc.

Implementation of all aspects of graphic design will play a part in the overall class. This is a continuation of student design studies, applying graphic concepts to the interactive Web. Course will focus on video art as an expressive media.

Focus of the course will emphasize the opportunities and procedures in various fields of graphic design, illustration and the creative industries. Students will be guided in the preparation of a portfolio of their work, a resume, related documents and will learn practical interviewing techniques. The intent will be to prepare students to enter the art field with a confident and professional attitude. Art History lecture course focusing on significant artistic developments and forms of art and architecture through exploration of the development of human achievements in the modern and contemporary era.

Exploration of photography, its historical development, an examination of it as an art medium, and its influence on the development of modern art and contemporary culture.

Continuation of Drawing II. Emphasis on variety of drawing materials and subject matter as well as development of individual expression. Introduction to human-figure drawing through traditional and contemporary methods. Emphasis on analysis of space and form as well as human anatomy.

Studio art course that expands upon the core principles explored in Figure Drawing I and II along with broader experimentation in use of materials and deeper personal expression. Advanced study in studio art discipline beyond courses appearing in this catalog. Projects predetermined through interview with instructor, completed during studio times offered in discipline.

Studio course where students work with oil paints to realistically represent subject matter in the tradition of Western Art and participate in critique sessions.

Paint density, texture and chemistry will be discussed. The formal aspects of drawing will be applied. Painting demonstrations are designed to help each student understand the objective of the assignments. Students will prepare their own painting surfaces in order to learn and appreciate the craft involved with the entire process of creating a finished work of art.

An introduction to the fundamental concepts of painting in a studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in painting. This course will not fulfill the requirements for a major in art. Studio course where students work with paint to represent subject matter, broaden techniques learned in ART , develop personal expression and participate in critique sessions. Continuation of Painting II. Special projects in both traditional and nontraditional materials and subject matter.

A study of the basic principles of ceramics and ceramic art making with emphasis on the hand-building process and introduction to wheel throwing. Studio operations such as clay mixing, clay recycling, glaze mixing and kiln loading will also be covered. An introduction to the fundamental concepts of ceramics in a studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in ceramics.

Continuation of Ceramics I with more emphasis on wheel throwing skills, experimentation with glazes and creative design and expression. How to run a ceramics facility is covered through course participation in studio operations. Introduction to materials and processes of jewelry making.

Techniques include cutting, piercing, filing, joining, casting, forging, soldering, and cold connections. Stress on intricacies of working with different metals and experimental media and design concepts along with personal expression. An introduction to the basic essentials of making jewelry in an art studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in making jewelry. Further exploration and refinement of metal fabrication processes as introduced in Jewelry I.

Techniques may include soldering, jewelry scale casting, surface embellishment techniques, enameling techniques, hydraulic die forming and mechanism design to create jewelry and small scale objects. Introduction to sculpture materials, skills, history, and concepts.

Explores methods in manipulation of traditional and experimental sculptural media, including additive and subtractive techniques. Involves studio work, research, lecture, and discussion. Emphasis as much on learning technique as understanding concepts and personal expression. An introduction to the fundamental concepts of sculpture in a studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in sculpture.

Emphasis on artisanship, exploration, and research to gain more sophisticated and self-motivated personal direction. Introduces skills in welding and metal fabrication as well as individual media choices. May include some metal casting. Introduction to basics of figure sculpture using the human figure as reference for subject matter for modeling in clay over an armature.

Some other ways of constructing the figure may also be investigated. Introduction to basic traditional printmaking processes.

It is assumed upon entrance that students have no prior printmaking knowledge. Woodcut black and white woodcut, color woodcut , Intaglio etching, acquaint, drypoint , and Monotype. An introduction to the fundamental concepts of printmaking in a studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in printmaking. This course is designed to build upon basic relief printing processes covered in Intro to Printmaking. This course is designed to build upon basic intaglio processes covered in Intro to Printmaking.

In-depth exploration of the processes of creating art textiles. Draws upon contemporary and historical sources and personal imagery for expression using the fiber medium. Techniques include direct application of dyes and pigments with various resist methods, screen print processes, creating a dimensional fiber form, and exploring pattern structures. Students create within directed problems and develop abilities to verbalize ideas through conversations and critiques.

An introduction to the fundamental concepts of Fiber and Textile based art in a studio environment. Students will become familiar with the materials and techniques used in Fibers. Introduction to basics and principles of black and white photography. Includes mechanical and visual aspects and darkroom skills for developing and printing black and white film. Requires manual single-lens reflex camera. Basic processes and procedures of creating imagery through the use of new technology and other devices.

Explores digital tools and processes as a means for photographic input, output and basic image manipulation. Fundamental computer skills are required. Students will be responsible for their own megapixel adjustable digital camera minimum as well as other supplies. Approach to photography primarily from creative visual aspect, emphasis is placed on concept development. Intermediate exploration of the aesthetics and techniques of digital photography including a further investigation of the constructed image, color management, asset management and output methods.

Students will produce one or more portfolios of digital images. This course is a continuation in understanding black and white and or digital photography, and in understanding photographic images in general in terms of how they function as art work; with emphasis on technical consistency and sophistication in expression of ideas. Variable content covering in-depth advanced topics in technique and subject matter not covered in regular curriculum.

Topics vary and may include subjects such as portrait photography and lighting, location photography: Class may be repeated for credit up to three times if different topic is studied. Provides hands-on instruction in the photographic studio in the manipulation and utilization of light for the production of professional quality images.

Students are taught to accurately control lighting for portraits, objects, products, etc. Students learn to use their technical expertise, creativity and composition skills to produce and preserve images that visually tell a story or record an event. Photographic techniques and location considerations are discussed as well as the business practices essential to be successful in the profession.

Course exploring techniques, materials and methods of illustration for commercial and fine art purposes. Projects emphasize individual creativity and concept but also emphasize working with clients. Continuation of Illustration I with an advanced approach.

Emphasis placed on subject interpretation and individual concept and creativity using variety of art mediums. Basic processes and procedures of curating a fine art exhibition and managing exhibition space. Explore SCC's community art venue from a behind-the-scenes perspective while developing an understanding of the responsibilities of managing, funding, and maintaining exhibition space.

Participation in installation and planning of SCC Gallery exhibitions. May involve field trips. On-the-job experience in visual arts. Students may apply for an internship with artists or art-related businesses to enhance career readiness. One of the following: ART , , , , , , , , , , , or Permission of Instructor.

Field course covering art, architecture, and history of a region of the world involving supervised on-site field studies and coursework outlined in an individual learning agreement. Includes lectures, directed readings, writing, drawing, photography, and other creative projects as well as visits to important sites and artifacts. Students must also register for and participate in approved academic study tour, study abroad, or field experience. Upon completion of 31 to 32 credits of the requirements towards an AFA degree 3rd semester.

A course for art majors planning to transfer to a four-year institution for a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree or a BA degree in Studio Art. This course will guide students in how to photograph their artwork and prepare their visual art portfolio for review by the transfer institutions and exhibition spaces.

Opportunities and procedures in the various fields of visual art will be discussed. Other necessary skills such as artist resume writing and artist statement writing will also be undertaken. Introduction to biology, the science of life. Includes origin and nature of life, from simplest single-celled forms to complex plants and animals and human beings.

Appreciation of diversity and unity in living world by studying form and organization of the bacteria and other cells to specialization of structures in human body. Examines fundamental principles of biology. Includes organization of living things, scientific method, cell and molecular biology, genetics, ecology, evolution, and relationship between biology and society.

Suitable for non-science majors. Emphasis on use of methodologies typical of biological studies. Compliments topics covered in BIO Provides undergraduate non-majors an understanding of contemporary scientific issues, concepts and trends in biology. Emphasis is on health and disease, genetic engineering, evolutionary aspect of organisms, introduction to ecology and the impact of humans on ecosystems and environment.

Survey of human body structure and function for non-science major. Study of all organ systems of the body along with current topics in human biology. Use of models, specimens, and investigative activities intended to enhance study of human organism. Explores structure and function of ecosystems.

Study of general ecological principles in context of current problems in world's ecosystems. Course includes field trips to off-campus locations. Ecological investigations in field and laboratory settings and procedures similar to those used by ecologists to study the natural world.

Investigations will complement topics covered in BIO Course includes field trips to off campus locations. Requires concurrent enrollment in BIO Study of biological and physical characteristics and principles of nature. Deals with diverse topics such as ecology, endangered species, pollution, meteorology, earth studies, populations, etc.

Occasional guest speakers or field trips included. Human reproduction from biological point of view. Topics include human inheritance from chromosomes to biotechnology , human reproduction male and female anatomy and physiology , fetal development and birth, sexually transmitted diseases emphasis on AIDS epidemic , and evolution of sexual reproduction. MAT , One year of high school biology or equivalent with a C or better; One year of high school chemistry or equivalent with a grade of C or better.

Basic principles of plant and animal biology, including cell biology, biochemistry, energetics, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Appreciation of scientific method in general and biological methodology.

Lab component will emphasize the use of methodologies typical of biological studies. Continuation of General Biology I. Emphasis on botany, zoology, animal systems, behavior, taxonomy. Lab component will feature laboratory and field activities that complement studies in lecture. Introduction to diversity of plant kingdom. Topics include plant cell structure, physiology of plant cell, study of major groups of plants and their life cycles, and study of various biomes.

High School Biology or equivalent and High School Chemistry or equivalent with a grade of C or better within the last 5 years. High-school biology or equivalent and high-school chemistry or equivalent with a grade of a "C" or better within the last five years. Basic concepts of microbiology including metabolism, genetics, and inhibition of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Emphasis on human pathogens, infection, resistance, and immunity.

Laboratory exercises reinforce lecture concepts and teach fundamental skills in microscopy, aseptic technique, isolation, and identification of microorganisms. Structure and function of human body, with particular attention to cell biology, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system and endocrine system.

Activities to enhance study of topics covered in the lecture section BIO A. Use of models, charts, and both microscopic and gross specimens to illustrate various systems. Continuation of study of structure and function of human body. Topics include cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, and reproduction. Use of laboratory activities to enhance study of human body structure and function. Study of mechanisms of disease conditions.

Working from foundation of normal function, exploration of what can go wrong and how. Emphasis on conditions most commonly encountered by today's health professionals. Combination of lecture, discussion, and seminar. Study of movement of the human body. Emphasis on elements of skeletomuscular system and how they produce movements.

Examines role of nervous coordination of body movement. Combination of lecture and lab. Scientific study of the essential nutrients and their function in the body. Recommended nutrient intakes, diet assessments and planning, relationships between diet and health will also be covered. Field course covering topics in the natural history of a specific region of the world.

Supervised on-site field studies and coursework in an individual learning agreement. Approved academic study tour, study abroad, or field experience required. Topics in biology presented as complete course. May be repeated for credit if the same topic is not repeated. May require permission of the instructor. Survey course covering many facets of business; a general knowledge of the modern business environment. Review of economic, social, legal, and ethical systems affecting U.

General concepts of business organization, management, people aspects of business, together with functions of production, marketing including international , accounting, finance, computers, and information systems. Introductory survey of classical and contemporary ethical theories related to current business and computer situations and problems with an emphasis on case studies and examples formerly BUS Basic functions of public relations in the public and private sector.

Emphasis on history, case studies and writing, including press releases, media plans and speeches. Media's role in public relations, and role in shaping and swaying public opinion.

Specific jobs and emphasis areas also covered. Students placed in position in an agency or in business to gain practical experience and learn specific operational technologies. Presents management and organizational concepts with application to realistic organizational situations.

Course structured around functions of management planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. Examines many choices each organization makes on journey to achieving excellence. Study of exemplary organizations, their operational choices, and how those decisions lead to improved financial and market performance. Addresses key operational issues in services and manufacturing such as inventory, production methods, capacity planning, production planning, total quality management, re-engineering business processes, and statistical process control.

Examines qualitative and quantitative methods in operations of well-known organizations. Covers many functions involved in personnel administration as performed by human resources department administrator and line managers.

Explores aspects of human resource management: Use of case analysis. Study of small business and its importance in American economy.

Analysis of problems of small business through use of case studies. Application of functions of management to small business environment, including personnel, finance, promotion, government relations, ethics, and insurance. Deals with people at work in various organizational situations and how to motivate human assets to work together more effectively.

Analysis of how to meet needs and goals of employees within organization while making organization productive. Covers motivation theories, communications, status and role behavior and contemporary human relations issues in firms. Basics of financial analysis, forecasting, operating and financial leverage, working capital, current asset management, short-term financing, time value concepts and practices, and cost of capital equity financing, dividend policy, convertible bonds, warrants and options.

Includes role of financial manager in organization. Introduces consumer and institutional behavior patterns and overall role of marketing in the economy. Examines marketing process and its functions, together with marketing mix place, product, price and promotion. Presents psychological and societal motivations that translate need through demand to satisfaction.

Provides means to evaluate firm's capabilities, develop marketing strategies, and introduce marketing techniques to meet objectives. Review of marketing ethics and some international aspects of marketing. Introduction to theory, practice, and techniques of advertising. Consideration of role of advertising and sales promotion. General survey of kinds and purposes of media, psychological implications of typical appeals, and limited practice in promotional programming. Coordination of advertising display and publicity in context of realistic sales promotion programs.

Fundamentals of retail store organization and management, including store location, layout, buying, pricing operation, advertising, display, and analysis associated with merchandise handling. Area retailers invited to discuss actual application of various retailing activities, e. Marketing strategy and tactics explained based on explicit or implicit beliefs about consumer behavior. Included are external influences to buying, internal influences, the consumer's buying decision process, social and ethical issues in consumer behavior.

Presents information search and consumer research methods as well as ultimate consumer and industrial buyers. Fundamentals of personal selling from the determination of customer needs to the close of the sale.

Treats factors such as customer problems, merchandising knowledge, and personality traits of successful salespersons. Covers special selling topics and the role of the sales manager, together with motivation and compensation of the sales staff.

Introduction to general nature of law and how its meaning affects climate in which a business operates. Survey course to develop understanding and appreciation of environments and operations of international business. The nature of international business, international environment, organizations and monetary systems, foreign environment, and management tools that deal with environmental forces. Examines impact of the Internet on traditional methods of marketing and related business functions.

Explores existing and potential use of the Internet for marketing goods and services. Analyzes the effect of the Internet on marketing strategy and the marketing mix. Examines how to develop an effective strategy for communicating to a targeted audience using the accelerated tools available in an online market. It will also cover the use of Google Analytics to track performance.

This course is a culminating experience integrating all the course work taken in the Business Administration Associate of Applied Science program. This course includes individual and programmatic assessment. All Business Administration AAS degree-seeking students are required to take this capstone class in their final semester before graduating.

Introduction to computer keyboard and development of correct techniques for keyboarding documents. Speed and accuracy exercises to develop necessary skill level. Emphasis on straight copy skills, basic keyboarding applications, and document formatting such as letters, memos, reports, and tabulation problems. Designed for both beginning typists and individuals who need to refresh keyboarding skills. Introduces use of business applications in word processing, spreadsheets, databases and presentations.

Windows application package used for each application. PC-based software only Keyboarding skills recommended. Emphasizes document formatting and review of basic related grammar and punctuation rules. Proofreading and editing techniques applied to business documents. Concentration on individual goals and skill improvement. Develop fundamental principles of serving customer needs.

Learn to analyze situations, develop solutions, implement and evaluate effectiveness, and train others. Covers all vital areas to help handle customers professionally, effectively, and successfully. Build good rapport with customers and associates. Improve telephone skills to meet needs of work place and become more customer service oriented in handling of telephone communications.

Techniques of scripting and organization. Practice handling variety of customers. Time management techniques and organizational planning to improve efficiency on the job.