Your Digestive System

Effective Treatments for Common Goldfish Diseases

Human digestive system
The main cause of diarrhea is contaminated water and food. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. The wall has an outer layer of longitudinal muscles, the taeniae coli , and an inner layer of circular muscles. You may have successfully battled nasty goldfish diseases this time around, but are you taking preventative measures to keep your goldfish safe? It spreads via bacteria-infected saliva droplets. Digestive symptoms are more common in children than adults. The esophagus , commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Vomiting may precede the onset of bloody diarrhea. Marked, peracute fluid loss can result in hypovolemic shock before clinically recognizable dehydration.

Other historical findings eg, dietary indiscretion, vaccination status, etc are unremarkable. HGE is not considered contagious. Selective culture for fecal pathogens eg, Clostridium spp, Salmonella spp, Yersinia spp, Clostridium spp, Campylobacter spp, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli , etc and evaluation for Clostridium spp enterotoxin by fecal ELISA can be considered.

Abnormalities on CBC are usually limited to hemoconcentration and neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum biochemical profile may be unremarkable or show mild panhypoproteinemia, hypoglycemia sepsis, decreased intake with limited hepatic glycogen stores , and electrolyte abnormalities consistent with GI loss and decreased intake ie, hypokalemia, hyponatremia, hypochloremia.

There have been anecdotal reports of mildly prolonged Trichuris vulpis , Ancylostoma spp, Uncinaria spp gastroenteritis; systemic disturbances with secondary GI involvement eg, hypoadrenocorticism, pancreatitis, renal failure, hepatic disease, etc ; coagulopathy eg, rodenticide toxicosis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopathia, etc ; severe GI ulceration; neoplasia; and GI perforation of any etiology.

Aggressive IV fluid therapy is the mainstay of treatment. The rate of isotonic fluid administration is based on patient perfusion, degree of dehydration, and ongoing losses. So there you are, sitting at lunch, enjoying some grilled-chicken pizza and a few orange wedges.

When you're finished, you take a last drink of milk, wipe your mouth, and head to your next class. In a few minutes you're thinking about the capital of Oregon or your science fair project. You've completely forgotten about that pizza lunch you just ate. But it's still in your stomach — sort of like a science experiment that happens all the time! And the digestive system will be busy at work on your chewed-up lunch for the next few hours — or sometimes days, depending upon what you've eaten.

This process, called digestion , allows your body to get the nutrients and energy it needs from the food you eat. So let's find out what's happening to that pizza, orange, and milk. Even before you eat, when you smell a tasty food, see it, or think about it, digestion begins. When you do eat, the saliva breaks down the chemicals in the food a bit, which helps make the food mushy and easy to swallow. Your tongue helps out, pushing the food around while you chew with your teeth.

When you're ready to swallow, the tongue pushes a tiny bit of mushed-up food called a bolus say: BO-luss toward the back of your throat and into the opening of your esophagus, the second part of the digestive tract. It moves food from the back of your throat to your stomach. But also at the back of your throat is your windpipe, which allows air to come in and out of your body.

When you swallow a small ball of mushed-up food or liquids, a special flap called the epiglottis say: If you've ever drunk something too fast, started to cough, and heard someone say that your drink "went down the wrong way," the person meant that it went down your windpipe by mistake. This happens when the epiglottis doesn't have enough time to flop down, and you cough involuntarily without thinking about it to clear your windpipe.

Once food has entered the esophagus, it doesn't just drop right into your stomach. Instead, muscles in the walls of the esophagus move in a wavy way to slowly squeeze the food through the esophagus. This takes about 2 or 3 seconds. Your stomach, which is attached to the end of the esophagus, is a stretchy sack shaped like the letter J. It has three important jobs:. The stomach is like a mixer, churning and mashing together all the small balls of food that came down the esophagus into smaller and smaller pieces.

Endoscopy is a procedure that looks inside your stomach. It uses an instrument called an endoscope, or scope for short. Scopes have a camera attached to a long, thin tube. The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside an organ.

Sometimes scopes are used for surgery, such as for removing polyps from the colon. Patients typically gift with abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, anorexia, modification in gut habits, nausea, and innate reflex. The identification is commonly delayed and is sometimes created through a mixture of radiologic, endoscopic, microbiologic, histologic, and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial treatment is that the same as for TB. Surgery is sometimes needed. Constipation occurs when bowel movements become difficult or less frequent.

The normal length of time between bowel movements ranges widely from person to person. Some people have bowel movements three times a day; others, only one or two times a week. Going longer than three days without a bowel movement is too long. After three days, the stool or feces become harder and more difficult to pass. People usually sit down with a "stomachache" or "abdominal cramps" to sit down with pain that's perceived anyplace within the abdominal space.

As such, the list of potential causes is extraordinarily varied. Organs of the abdomen embody the abdomen, bowel, colon, liver, bladder, and duct gland, and issues or diseases of all of those organs is also the supply of pain. Digestion of protein begins in this place.

The stomach has three main roles. It stores swallowed food. It mixes the food with stomach acids. Then it sends the mixture to the small intestine. Most people have a problem with their stomach at any time. Indigestion and inflammation are common problems. You can relieve some stomach problems with over-the-counter medicines and lifestyle changes, such as avoiding fatty foods or eating more slowly.

Other problems like peptic ulcers or GERD require medical attention. The most common symptom of a stomach ulcer is a burning or gnawing pain that develops in your abdomen. The pain can also travel up to your neck, down to your navel belly-button or through to your back. The pain associated with a stomach ulcer is caused by the ulcer itself and stomach acid that comes into contact with the ulcer and irritates it.

The pain can last from a few minutes to a few hours. Abdominal bloating is a condition in which the abdomen feels uncomfortably full and tight and may be visibly swollen distended. Bloating is a common complaint, affecting between 10 and 30 percent of adults. Severe abdominal pain and bloating that occur suddenly, especially if you also have nausea and vomiting, may be a sign of a bowel obstruction from scar tissue or a tumor pressing on the bowel.

The glands located in your mouth and throat. The most important secretion glands are the salivary gland, submandibular, and articulator glands. They all secrete saliva into your mouth, the salivary gland through tubes that drain saliva referred to as salivary glands, close to your higher teeth, submandibular beneath your tongue, and therefore the articulator through several ducts within the floor of your mouth.

Besides these glands, there are small glands referred to as minor salivary glands placed in your lips, inner cheek space buccal mucosa , and extensively in alternative linings of your mouth and throat.

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