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It is about whether they lost fat. Roberts A, Clapp B January This glucose is easily stored in the body as fats with the help of pancreatic insulin. Gone are the days of digging through your protein to get your scoop. If Sammy was going to go ahead with the diet shown in the example, and eat grams of carbohydrates per day, then he would have to also include other foods in his diet that are carbohydrate-rich.
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Interested in more research reviews like this? As expected, it is excellent. I will respond to this over the weekend. Okay folks, first off let me point out that Menno Henselmans was kind enough to message me to ensure the accuracy of this blog post and to get my temperature on it before he posted it https: A very respectful, honest thing to do. The only thing I wanted him to change in fact, was that originally he wrote that the research in question was part of my PhD when it was actually a part of my Masters.
And of course he made this edit, so really I left the blog post untouched. Now that is not to say I agree with his interpretation. In fact, I disagree with his interpretation in a few important ways, both mechanistically and in terms of practical application. However, I believe his interpretation is a perfectly reasonable one to make even though I disagree. So, I am putting forth the following response to help those reading both of our thoughts come to their own conclusions on protein intake.
To start, Menno addresses my systematic review of protein intakes in lean dieting resistance trained populations. He starts by putting forth the fact that the efficiency of protein utilization increases as you decrease calories, which is true. Similar phenomenon occur in many ways in the body. The body increases efficiency in the face of a limited resource.
In fact an increase in efficiency signals that there is a limited resource. If you travel to a very high altitude, you get more efficient with oxygen extraction in an effort to keep you alive. An increase in efficiency signals the fact that there is a limited resource. So it is not illogical to posit that increasing protein in the face of a deficit would be a potentially lean mass sparing decision.
Protein breakdown increases in the face of a caloric deficit as more protein is used for energy. This is well established http: It is also well established that the leaner you are, the more protein you oxidize for energy since there is less available from body fat http: So while you can accurately state that protein efficiency increases in a deficit and be correct, it is also true that you are using more protein for fuel.
This is not a one sided equation. For these reasons, I think it is plainly incorrect to state that protein needs decrease when you diet. It is only accurate to state that protein efficiency increases when you diet. Honestly, I think Menno would likely agree with that distinction. I think our true disagreement just comes down to how much protein is required to offset the increase in protein breakdown that occurs, and he would argue that 1. What we also agree on, is the characterization of my literature review as a hypothesis rather than a definitive conclusion.
I explained how a caloric deficit increases protein breakdown, how caloric deficits result in lean body mass losses that scale with the severity of energy restriction, and how the leaner you are the more protein is used for fuel.
Then, I hypothesized that an effective strategy to offset this would be an increase in protein intake. A final note regarding my literature review, I want to give a huge kudos to Menno for actually doing some statistical analysis on the data that I presented.
That really impressed me. However, I am curious to see what occurs when Menno reanalyses this information based on grams per kilogram of lean body mass. I actually just provided him that data to run an analysis on. I doubt it will reach significance and show a strong correlation, but I am curious to see if the p value decreases and the inverse correlation increases as it might indicate that something is happening, even if there is not enough data yet to make any definitive, quantitative conclusion.
Now finally, Menno addresses my cross over study comparing 1. I think that 1. I only had access to high quality, skilled anthropometric measurements. This means skinfolds, and skinfold derived equations. Skinfolds measurements when taken by a skilled technician themselves when not put into an equation are a highly reliable and accurate way of measuring fat mass. But, LBM and body fat percentage derived from equations are not. So based on the time frame and the measurements available, I am truly not surprised that there was no difference in LBM BTW, of course our lab got an ultrasound…6 months after I finished my masters!
However, the study was not completely a waste! Interestingly enough both on the Profile of Mood States and the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes the participants reported better overall mood state, more diet satisfaction, and less fatigue consuming the higher protein diet. Menno dismissed this finding saying the following: First off, I think Menno accidentally counted the entire calorie amount of the placebo powder, versus just the maltodextrin portion, as the powder also had 20g of protein in it.
The 95g of maltodextrin is calories, and calories is However, I would put forth that his point like my literature review is just a hypothesis as to the reason the high protein group felt better. And I would argue, a much weaker hypothesis given that the research on how sugar effects hunger and mood is not as definitive as one might think. In fact White and colleagues found improvements that only reached significance in a high sucrose diet group in the mental component of a quality of life assessment http: This finding is not solitary.
Drummond observed subjects consuming a low fat, sugar containing diet who when compared to baseline, reported improvements in perceived quality of life, diet attitude and adherence http: In contrast, the hypothesis that a higher protein intake might result in better diet satisfaction and less hunger is one that stands on the top of a great deal of empirical evidence http: However, as Menno might argue and I would agree , the majority of this evidence compares low to high protein intakes without comparing a middle of the road intake, like this study http: However, recent research by Antonio comparing 1.
In my opinion this indicates a satiating effect of protein that extends past the 1. A follow up study comparing 2. Again, I would put forth this likely shows a satiating effect of the higher protein intake and subsequent over reporting of caloric intake which would explain less weight gained, and fat lost in the 3. To conclude, while it is possible that the differential effects on mood found in the higher protein group in my study are due to the higher sugar intake in the lower protein group, I think it would be premature to conclude this based on the well-established satiating power of protein and the murkier role of sugar.
As a final note I want to emphasize the difference between what Menno and I prescribe with our interpretations of the research. Menno, is happy to use 1. I would agree that intakes over 1.
We share this opinion with other much more well established researchers http: Now the reason I am not comfortable with simply advising 1. Additionally, I would rather err on the side of over prescribing protein versus under prescribing given the info graphic I linked above.
Specifically, I would turn your attention to the 7 studies at the bottom of this infographic that found a benefit of a higher protein intake versus a lower one. Sure, you can find flaws in each study. But if you have to explain away five studies to maintain your position, perhaps you need to rethink how strongly you hold your position.
For the record, I normally prescribe either 1. As a closing note, I want to look to the future because in my opinion we need more research on this to truly make a definitive conclusion. Thus far, the only true controlled comparisons we have of one protein vs another in lifting populations using progressive resistance training while dieting are:.
Helms me showing 2. We disagree because we are filling in gaps with our interpretations of what is available. Hopefully a meta-analysis or a better designed, longer RCT will come out that can give more evidence. I know Menno well enough that he would revise his thoughts on protein if convincing data was to emerge in fact that is the essence of the Bayesian approach.
I commit to do the same. The results of the above studies in cutting strength trainees are supported by nitrogen balance studies and research in untrained individuals. In both these studies there was still lean body mass loss, but note that it is circular reasoning to say that lean body mass loss implies insufficient protein intake.
You can only deduce this if you first assume that increased protein intakes are required to protect you from muscle loss compared to being at maintenance or in a bulk. And this whole review shows this assumption is highly questionable. In fact, we have good research in untrained individuals that shows increasing your protein intake in a deficit does not protect your muscles [ 2 ], even when doubling your protein intake at just calories a day [ 3 ].
One particularly nice study is the recent Hill et al. Protein content did not affect body composition and this effect was not different between weight maintenance and weight loss phases. How much muscle you lose is instead determined by things like the rate of weight loss, your training and your genetics. As for these subjects being untrained, we know that strength training increases protein requirements.
This is a direct effect with a clear mechanism: But to invalidate the finding that protein needs are not increased in a deficit in untrained individuals, there would have to be an interaction effect between strength training and the relation between energy balance and protein intake.
We also know that increasing your protein intake has little effect on muscle atrophy during disuse, like during bedrest. Other than a lack of research, another main argument from Eric was that he saw a subjective trend towards benefits of higher protein intakes in the dataset from his research review. As I analyzed in the first part of this now-very-long post, objectively there was no significant relation between protein intake and weight loss success.
However, Eric rightfully pointed out that I used protein relative to total bodyweight in my analysis, i.
So he provided me with the data on protein intake relative to fat free mass and I redid my analysis. The p -value increased from 0. In other words, calculating protein relative to lean body weight instead of total body weight did not strengthen the relation between protein intake and weight loss success: So everyone can check my analysis, I have uploaded the outputs of my analyses with protein based on bodyweight vs.
For example, in Hoffman et al. These subjects with a low protein intake could easily explain the trend in study towards better results in the higher protein group. Alright folks, the protein debate continues between Menno?
For those not following along, Menno respectfully critiqued my research and I responded in kind, and most recently he responded to my rebuttal https: I agree it is valuable evidence, but I would like to reiterate that there was a difference in mood state favoring the 2.
In fact the first two he cites, I included in my original rebuttal to his blog. This 8 week study is not a dieting study, the 2. And yes, Menno is correct the higher protein group lost more fat. The second study by Antonio which I also already brought up was comparison of 4.
Once again, this is not a dieting study. Not a dieting study. Now we get to Pasiakos , that actually was a dieting study I analyse this in my lit review by the way.
But, he is incorrect about one thing, the researchers actually did find one statistically significant difference between the 2x and 3x RDA groups. The 3x RDA group was the only group that had a statistically significant rise in post prandial muscle protein synthesis during energy deficit. Additionally, I would challenge the notion that this was a true study on people performing resistance training. Here is the exact quote from the study describing the training: Specifically, volunteers performed one single-joint movement per major muscle group 3 sets of 15 repetitions using workloads determined during the prestudy period.
Frequency, intensity, mode, and volume of resistive-type activities did not change during the d study. Unfortunately, then we get back to non-dieting studies. Verdjik is also not a dieting study, a deficit was not imposed, bodyweight was not statistically significantly different from pre to post. In fact, in the placebo group after 12 weeks bodyweight was Over 12 weeks, g of bodyweight loss.
This is not a dieting study. As we move onto Campbell et al , again we are confronted with a study that is not on people dieting. I will quote the authors: Menno is correct to say there were not significant differences in body composition, but it is worth pointing out that the authors stated the following: Finally we get to the last study Menno cites Maltais , which unbelievably, is also not a dieting study! In this study on sarcopenic 65 year olds by the way all three groups increased their bodyweight from start to finish yes weight gain.
However, at least in this case despite the study being misrepresented as a diet study, at least Menno represents the results accurately. He correctly stated that no differences were found between the 1. A stated by the authors: Menno appropriately brings up the Campbell and Meckling study to prove this statement false.
Well done, I concede that I forgot about this study and I will admit that yes, there is 1 study in existence that shows a statistically significant benefit to a lower protein intake vs a higher one. In the infographic I posted in my first rebuttal, there are indeed studies showing benefits of a higher intake than 1. Additionally, there is a Hoffman study that might have found a benefit of 2. Even so, based on the change scores, it does appear there are likely some trends towards the 2.
But it is difficult to evaluate as they did not report exact P values. Finally, to bring it up yet again my study did find a mood state benefit of comparing 2. As I stated in my initial response to Menno, these studies are not perfect, you can find flaws in each, and dismiss the findings if you choose…but when you have to dismiss 7 studies the 5 at the bottom of the infographic, my study, and the Hoffman study that I linked the table from , it should give one pause as to the strength of their claims.
To clarify, your position seems to be that Butterfield and Celejowa showing nitrogen balance not being maintained during slight deficits while consuming 2.
That is not logically consistent and comes across as biased. Thank you Menno, and I still completely agree that based on the hard data, my lit review should be viewed as a hypothesis rather than fact.
Finally, I want to applaud Menno for pointing out that statistically, due to compliance issues with consuming supplied protein supplements, some studies might show a trend towards a benefit of a higher protein intake that is actually just due to both groups consuming less than is reported.
In summary, Sammy should eat 35 grams of protein and 70 grams of carbs for an ideal post workout meal. Pre-Workout Guidelines — Freddy Fatts weighs lbs. Note that Freddy can only eat grams of carbs per day, and he's already down by 46 grams just from pre-workout carbs.
So, we'll find Freddy's carbs by multiplying his bodyweight by the minimum 0. In summary, Freddy should eat 46 grams of protein and 46 grams of carbohydrates for an ideal post-workout meal. Contrary to bodybuilding diet dogma, there is no magic number of meals per day that you must eat.
If you prefer eating 7 small meals per day, then by all means, go for it. I personally find preparing and eating meals to be tedious, so I squeeze my calories into larger, more satisfying meals depending on the day. Eat Mostly Healthy Foods. The majority of your food should come from healthy food sources, in order to fulfill your calorie and macronutrient requirements, as well as your vitamin and mineral needs.
Check out the muscle building foods page to discover the most nutritious foods to eat for a successful diet. Note that I said to eat mostly healthy foods. Although there are many healthy foods that taste good, you probably have a not-so-healthy favorite food pizza or subs for me.
I strongly recommend "fitting" your favorite foods into your dietary requirements on a regular basis but still hit your calorie and macro goals. This advice may go against the hard-headed, all-or-nothing mentality that is common with the "hardcore" crowd.
But, unless you are dieting for a contest, a flexible bodybuilding diet is superior because:. How to Stay Hydrated. Hydration is a critical, but commonly forgotten aspect of the bodybuilding diet. Most people will be fine if they drink about one gallon of water per day. However, water intake can vary on several factors, especially if you're drinking water to lose weight. Some basic tips and guidelines for proper hydration include the following:. You will likely need to make a slight adjustment to your calorie requirements based on how much weight gain or weight loss you experience.
Sammy Smalls is now two weeks into his bodybuilding diet. He has been eating calories per day, which includes grams of protein, 56 grams of fat, and grams of carbs.
When he checks his weight, he's barely gained any weight — half a pound if he's lucky. There's no need for Sammy to worry. That means he should eat calories per day for the upcoming week. Freddy Fatts is now two weeks into his bodybuilding diet. He has been eating calories per day, which includes grams of protein, 49 grams of fat, and grams of carbs. When he checks his weight, he's barely lost any weight — half a pound if he's lucky. There's no need for him to fret. All ten steps are very important to building your custom-tailored nutrition plan.
However, the bare minimum that you should take away from this page are the following underlying bodybuilding diet principles:.
Consistency is Key to Victory. This wraps up the ten fundamental steps of making your perfect bodybuilding diet. It may take a little time to get used to and a couple of cycles to find what works best, but just stick with it and it will soon become second nature. Be consistent with your diet plan and the new and improved body will follow suit. My name is Alex, and I'm the owner and author of King of the Gym. I started this website back in late during college, and it has been my pet project ever since.
My goal is to help you learn proper weight training and nutrition principles so that you can get strong and build the physique of your dreams!
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. I think 40 grams of protein is ok… I eat vegan and I do very well eating less than 40 grams of protein a day from vegetables sources. I subscribed to your newsletter and have yet to receive the page document that was promised. Or it could be an issue on my end. I appologize for the delay in getting the ebook — I realized earlier today that there was an issue with the autoresponsder settings for my mail service i.
I fixed this a few hours ago, so you should have received a copy. Thank you very much for your article, it is great. However, I have a question. In you example, he is supposed to eat grams of carbohydrates per day. How can he eat that amount? If Sammy was going to go ahead with the diet shown in the example, and eat grams of carbohydrates per day, then he would have to also include other foods in his diet that are carbohydrate-rich. I calculated a diet for myself using your formula but should I eat the same amount of macronutrients on non workout days?
Your results will be similar whether you hit calories exactly each day, or if you hit one day, one day, another day, etc. However, as you can see from above, it can take some extra effort to calculate the amounts; plus, it takes a little extra time and effort to actually hit these different caloric goals on different days. Basically, it make things potentially more confusing and complicated. And as I said earlier, manipulating your calories like this is not necessary to make great progress….
I always thought you were supposed to consume more calories on the days you exercised. Is this not the case? Hi Art, good question! Thanks for asking it.
I actually just wrote this response to the Sean, who left a comment right above yours asking the same question. My question is does this type of cutting plan work for someone larger. So if I was I would look like a waif. Also I did not receive the email to the newsletter even though I signed up. I noticed some others have been having this issue. Also, as you described yourself, it seems like you may also have more muscle than Freddy, which also explains why your weight is so much higher despite being just a bit overweight.
That all said, nothing actually changes in terms of how the diet instructions above work. The only thing that changes is the numbers you plug into the equations. Will surely try the above methods and will let you know the results soon. Excellent writing with all the necessary information. Best of all, the article is easy to digest and easy to follow with precise examples. If you are looking to build muscle then you must eat your protein diet and do your workout routines regularly as this is the key to get good muscular and lean body.
It was nearly impossible to find a thorough yet simple explanation like yours. Thanks a ton, Nina! Hi sir,before 2month i was start taking animal booster mass gainer. All the info you need to get started is in here. In total protein is but when you divide that by my 6 meals, it works it to Hey Alex, I just wanted to know a couple of things. The first thing was if you could tell how much I should bench after coming back from a broken collarbone 5 weeks ago.
If you have, then I would definitely suggest starting with even less than you think you can handle. Then increase weight each week. This has answered so many questions I had and now im really confident in hitting my goals. From your comment, I can tell you have more than enough enthusiasm and dedication to put your diet plan into action and achieve your goals.
My husband and I are gonna start doing this this week! We are going to get a food scale too. If that makes any sense at all. I mean, we would be able to tell how many calories or grams a plate or bowl of food is total, but when mixed together, how do you measure the macros?
Hi Mikayla, great question! You would just weigh out the individual ingrediants and calculate their macros. Then add them all up together. Then you just divide that cumulative total of all macros in all ingredients…. Total calories for that portion would be I want to ask, If i am working out 7 day a week, is it good?? Or a day off is recommend???? That depends on many things: Now, that being said, it is possible for beginners to train 6 days per week and still get good results.
I recommend you also take a look and my weight training routines page for several other routines for beginners, intermediates and advanced lifters. Please do not suggest taking fats postworkout because it can lower the Glycemic Index of the post workout and it can delay the whey protein. Thanks for the comment, Tahir. That may or may not be the ideal, but any effect will likely be negligible. The most important thing is to get some protein in, within a reasonable time after training.
Everything else is just details. Bulking Example Meet Sammy Smalls, an aspiring gym rat. Cutting Example Meet Freddy Fatts, a guy determined to put in the work to lose his gut and finally get ripped. Bulking Example Sammy Smalls stepped on the scale just yesterday so he knows he is lbs. Let's plug this in to solve the other equations: Cutting Example Freddy Fatts tips the scales at a not-so-solid lbs. Bulking Example A quick recap — Sammy Smalls is lbs.
Cutting Example A quick recap — Freddy Fatts, is lbs. Bulking Example A quick recap — Sammy Smalls is lbs and is scarfing down calories per day on his bodybuilding diet to bulk up. Cutting Example A quick recap — Freddy Fatts, a pudgy pounder is starting a bodybuilding diet for weight loss that involves eating calories per day.
Bulking Example Sammy Smalls is now two weeks into his bodybuilding diet. Cutting Example Freddy Fatts is now two weeks into his bodybuilding diet.
About the Author Alex Hey! Dan says January 15, Excellent diet plans here. Lots of good info and tips to help achieve your goals. Eric says February 10, I subscribed to your newsletter and have yet to receive the page document that was promised. Alex says February 10, Hi Eric, Thanks for subscribing.
Whatever the case, I just sent you an email with a link to the page MYx8 eBook. Charl says February 16, Hi, great post. All the necessary info in a nutshell. I have the same issue than Eric, no MYx8 ebook received. Alex says February 18, Hi Charl, I appologize for the delay in getting the ebook — I realized earlier today that there was an issue with the autoresponsder settings for my mail service i. All the best, Alex P. This message applies to anyone else who may not have received the ebook after signing up.