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E Hospitals should consider implementing a diabetes meal-planning system that provides consistency in the carbohydrate content of specific meals. Achieving weight and activity goals among Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle participants. Effect of a chicken-based diet on renal function and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: Some research has found that eating nuts weekly, including cashews, can help lower the risk for having gallstones. However, during the 50s and 60s, the market for convenient dog foods began to grow.
Elements present at low levels may cause deficiency symptoms, and toxicity is possible at levels that are too high. Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa. Canada's Food Guide is an example of a government-run nutrition program.
Produced by Health Canada , the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical activity in accordance with government-mandated nutrient needs. Like other nutrition programs around the world, Canada's Food Guide divides nutrition into four main food groups: Dietary and physical activity guidelines from the USDA are presented in the concept of MyPlate , which superseded the food pyramid , which replaced the Four Food Groups.
Department of Health and Human Services provides a sample week-long menu that fulfills the nutritional recommendations of the government.
Governmental organisations have been working on nutrition literacy interventions in non-primary health care settings to address the nutrition information problem in the U. The FNP has developed a series of tools to help families participating in the Food Stamp Program stretch their food dollar and form healthful eating habits including nutrition education.
It is designed to assist limited-resource audiences in acquiring the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and changed behavior necessary for nutritionally sound diets, and to contribute to their personal development and the improvement of the total family diet and nutritional well-being. Launched in , this program promotes lifelong healthful eating patterns and physically active lifestyles for children and their families.
It is an interactive educational program designed to help prevent childhood obesity through classroom activities that teach children healthful eating habits and physical exercise.
Nutrition is taught in schools in many countries. In England and Wales , the Personal and Social Education and Food Technology curricula include nutrition, stressing the importance of a balanced diet and teaching how to read nutrition labels on packaging. In many schools, a Nutrition class will fall within the Family and Consumer Science or Health departments. In some American schools, students are required to take a certain number of FCS or Health related classes.
Nutrition is offered at many schools, and, if it is not a class of its own, nutrition is included in other FCS or Health classes such as: In many Nutrition classes, students learn about the food groups, the food pyramid, Daily Recommended Allowances, calories, vitamins, minerals, malnutrition, physical activity, healthful food choices, portion sizes, and how to live a healthy life.
In the US, Registered dietitian nutritionists RDs or RDNs  are health professionals qualified to provide safe, evidence-based dietary advice which includes a review of what is eaten, a thorough review of nutritional health, and a personalized nutritional treatment plan.
They also provide preventive and therapeutic programs at work places, schools and similar institutions. Certified Clinical Nutritionists or CCNs, are trained health professionals who also offer dietary advice on the role of nutrition in chronic disease, including possible prevention or remediation by addressing nutritional deficiencies before resorting to drugs.
These Board Certified Nutritionists typically specialize in obesity and chronic disease. In order to become board certified, potential CNS candidate must pass an examination, much like Registered Dieticians.
This exam covers specific domains within the health sphere including; Clinical Intervention and Human Health. The study found that health literacy increases with education and people living below the level of poverty have lower health literacy than those above it. Another study examining the health and nutrition literacy status of residents of the lower Mississippi Delta found that 52 percent of participants had a high likelihood of limited literacy skills.
For example, only 12 percent of study participants identified the My Pyramid graphic two years after it had been launched by the USDA. The study also found significant relationships between nutrition literacy and income level and nutrition literacy and educational attainment  further delineating priorities for the region.
Among these problems are the lack of information about food choices, a lack of understanding of nutritional information and its application to individual circumstances, limited or difficult access to healthful foods, and a range of cultural influences and socioeconomic constraints such as low levels of education and high levels of poverty that decrease opportunities for healthful eating and living. The links between low health literacy and poor health outcomes has been widely documented  and there is evidence that some interventions to improve health literacy have produced successful results in the primary care setting.
More must be done to further our understanding of nutrition literacy specific interventions in non-primary care settings  in order to achieve better health outcomes. Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. In developing countries, malnutrition is more likely to be caused by poor access to a range of nutritious foods or inadequate knowledge.
The aim was to boost nutrition and livelihoods by producing a product that women could make and sell, and which would be accepted by the local community because of its local heritage. Although under- and over-nutrition are often viewed as human problems, pet animals can be under- or overfed by their owners, domesticated animals can be undernourished for macro- and micro-nutrients, affecting growth and health, and wild animals can be undernourished to the point of starvation and death.
Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis ,  and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.
ULs are set a safe fraction below amounts shown to cause health problems. ULs are part of Dietary Reference Intakes. When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced. High calorie food ingredients such as vegetable oils, sugar and alcohol are referred to as "empty calories" because they displace from the diet foods that also contain protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber.
Research indicates that improving the awareness of nutritious meal choices and establishing long-term habits of healthy eating have a positive effect on cognitive and spatial memory capacity, with potential to increase a student's ability to process and retain academic information. Some organizations have begun working with teachers, policymakers, and managed foodservice contractors to mandate improved nutritional content and increased nutritional resources in school cafeterias from primary to university level institutions.
Health and nutrition have been proven to have close links with overall educational success. There is limited research available that directly links a student's Grade Point Average G. Additional substantive data is needed to prove that overall intellectual health is closely linked to a person's diet, rather than just another correlation fallacy. Nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for major depression , bipolar disorder , schizophrenia , and obsessive compulsive disorder , the four most common mental disorders in developed countries.
Cancer is now common in developing countries. According to a study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer , "In the developing world, cancers of the liver, stomach and esophagus were more common, often linked to consumption of carcinogenic preserved foods, such as smoked or salted food, and parasitic infections that attack organs. Several lines of evidence indicate lifestyle-induced hyperinsulinemia and reduced insulin function i. For example, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are strongly linked to chronic inflammation, which in turn is strongly linked to a variety of adverse developments such as arterial microtrauma and clot formation i.
Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance the so-called metabolic syndrome are characterized by a combination of abdominal obesity , elevated blood sugar , elevated blood pressure , elevated blood triglycerides , and reduced HDL cholesterol. The state of obesity clearly contributes to insulin resistance, which in turn can cause type 2 diabetes. Virtually all obese and most type 2 diabetic individuals have marked insulin resistance.
Although the association between overweight and insulin resistance is clear, the exact likely multifarious causes of insulin resistance remain less clear. It has been demonstrated that appropriate exercise, more regular food intake, and reducing glycemic load see below all can reverse insulin resistance in overweight individuals and thereby lower their blood sugar level , in those with type 2 diabetes.
In addition, reduced leptin signaling to the brain may reduce leptin's normal effect to maintain an appropriately high metabolic rate. In any case, analogous to the way modern man-made pollution may possess the potential to overwhelm the environment's ability to maintain homeostasis , the recent explosive introduction of high glycemic index and processed foods into the human diet may possess the potential to overwhelm the body's ability to maintain homeostasis and health as evidenced by the metabolic syndrome epidemic.
Antinutrients are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the absorption of nutrients. Nutrition studies focus on antinutrients commonly found in food sources and beverages. The relatively recent increased consumption of sugar has been linked to the rise of some afflictions such as diabetes, obesity, and more recently heart disease.
Increased consumption of sugar has been tied to these three, among others. In the same time span that obesity doubled, diabetes numbers quadrupled in America. Increased weight, especially in the form of belly fat, and high sugar intake are also high risk factors for heart disease. Elevated amounts of Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol, is the primary factor in heart disease.
In order to avoid all the dangers of sugar, moderate consumption is paramount. Since the Industrial Revolution some two hundred years ago, the food processing industry has invented many technologies that both help keep foods fresh longer and alter the fresh state of food as they appear in nature. Cooling is the primary technology used to maintain freshness, whereas many more technologies have been invented to allow foods to last longer without becoming spoiled.
These latter technologies include pasteurisation , autoclavation , drying , salting , and separation of various components, all of which appearing to alter the original nutritional contents of food. Pasteurisation and autoclavation heating techniques have no doubt improved the safety of many common foods, preventing epidemics of bacterial infection.
But some of the new food processing technologies have downfalls as well. Modern separation techniques such as milling , centrifugation , and pressing have enabled concentration of particular components of food, yielding flour, oils, juices, and so on, and even separate fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Inevitably, such large-scale concentration changes the nutritional content of food, saving certain nutrients while removing others. Heating techniques may also reduce food's content of many heat-labile nutrients such as certain vitamins and phytochemicals, and possibly other yet-to-be-discovered substances.
In addition, processed foods often contain potentially harmful substances such as oxidized fats and trans fatty acids. A dramatic example of the effect of food processing on a population's health is the history of epidemics of beri-beri in people subsisting on polished rice.
Removing the outer layer of rice by polishing it removes with it the essential vitamin thiamine , causing beri-beri. Another example is the development of scurvy among infants in the late 19th century in the United States. It turned out that the vast majority of sufferers were being fed milk that had been heat-treated as suggested by Pasteur to control bacterial disease. Pasteurisation was effective against bacteria, but it destroyed the vitamin C.
As mentioned, lifestyle- and obesity-related diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent all around the world. There is little doubt that the increasingly widespread application of some modern food processing technologies has contributed to this development.
The food processing industry is a major part of modern economy, and as such it is influential in political decisions e. In any known profit-driven economy, health considerations are hardly a priority; effective production of cheap foods with a long shelf-life is more the trend.
In general, whole, fresh foods have a relatively short shelf-life and are less profitable to produce and sell than are more processed foods. Thus, the consumer is left with the choice between more expensive, but nutritionally superior, whole, fresh foods, and cheap, usually nutritionally inferior, processed foods.
Because processed foods are often cheaper, more convenient in both purchasing, storage, and preparation , and more available, the consumption of nutritionally inferior foods has been increasing throughout the world along with many nutrition-related health complications.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Nutrition in general. For Nutrition in humans, see Human nutrition. For Nutrition in animals, see Animal nutrition. For nutrition in plants, see Plant nutrition. For the medical journal, see Nutrition journal. Mineral nutrient and Composition of the human body. List of antioxidants in food. Animal nutrition and Human nutrition. Nutrition portal Food portal. Food Balance Wheel Biology: Bioenergetics Digestion Enzyme Dangers of poor nutrition Deficiency Avitaminosis is a deficiency of vitamins.
Boron deficiency medicine Chromium deficiency Iron deficiency medicine Iodine deficiency Magnesium deficiency medicine Diabetes Eating disorders Illnesses related to poor nutrition Malnutrition Obesity Childhood obesity Starvation Food: Dieting Eating Healthy eating pyramid Nutritional rating systems Lists: Diets list List of food additives List of illnesses related to poor nutrition List of life extension related topics List of publications in nutrition List of unrefined sweeteners List of antioxidants List of phytochemicals Nutrients: Dietitian Nutritionist Food Studies Tools: Human Nutrition and Food".
Retrieved 13 December Understanding Nutrition 13 ed. Deficiency, How Much, Benefits, and More. The New York Times. Archived from the original on The Profession of Dietetics.
A History of Nutrition. The Riverside Press Houghton Mifflin. Perspectives in Clinical Research. Eat, Drink, and be Healthy: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 5 ed. The Journal of Nutrition. Observations on the effect of adding tryptophane to a dietary in which zein is the sole nitrogenous constituent" PDF. The Journal of Physiology. Selected Topics in the History of Biochemistry: Personal Recollections, Part 1.
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Retrieved June 13, Retrieved December 22, Joins Hunt for Young German Chemist". San Bernardino Daily Sun. United States Department Of Agriculture. Archived from the original PDF on August 24, University of California Press. The End of Dieting. Harper One Harper Collins. Diabetik Bei Diabetus Mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr. Harvard School of Public Health. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology.
Recommended Dietary Allowances, revised Food Balance Sheets- A Handbook. Journal of Clinical Pathology. Introduction to Health Care 3 ed. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry 3rd ed. An Outline of its Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Technology 5th ed. Principles of Bioinorganic Chemistry. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 1 May Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Retrieved May 9, Health and Literacy Intervention Outcomes: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. In Defense of Food: World Bank Research Observer. J Am Coll Health. Archived from the original PDF on Journal of Public Economics. Chronicle of Higher Education. The vertical integration of food for thought". Cancer no longer rare in poorer countries". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Manufacturing Packaging Marketing Foodservice Fortification.
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Xerophthalmia and night blindness. Hypervitaminosis A cirrhosis, hair loss. Dyspepsia , cardiac arrhythmias , birth defects. Rickets , Hypovitaminosis D. Hypervitaminosis D dehydration, vomiting, constipation. Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke , reduced glycemic control among diabetics.
Cardiovascular Disease , Cancer. Osteoporosis , tetany , carpopedal spasm , laryngospasm , cardiac arrhythmias. Further, because this cereal undergoes processing at high heat and pressure during extrusion, it becomes pre-digested and enters the pet's bloodstream essentially as "sugar. Some have much higher glycemic indices than others, meaning they cause a greater rise in blood glucose when consumed and digested.
Perhaps the most offensive of all cereals used in pet foods is corn, from which corn syrup is derived, giving a good idea of how much sugar corn actually contains. Because it is plentiful and cheap in this country, corn is one of the favorite dry pet food cereals used by the industry. Sadly, even the most expensive, so-called premium dry pet foods contain high amounts of this ingredient.
An additional consideration is the cat's unique system of satiety signals from food. Logically, because the cat evolved in an environment rich in protein and fat, but deficient in carbohydrate, consumption of fat and protein evolved as the signal to the cat that it could cease intake. Consumption of carbohydrate, however, has a minimal effect on intake in the cat even as energy requirements are met and exceeded with this nutrient.
Thus, not only is the cat relatively incapable of handling repetitive substantial carbohydrate loads of the kind represented by dry cat food, it is also unable to respond appropriately to that consumption with appetite satisfaction.
The end result is cats that overeat, constantly flood their systems with glucose overloads, spiking repeated surges of insulin from their limited carnivore's pancreatic reserve, and become obese. For a large number of cats, their metabolic systems eventually become overwhelmed by this unphysiologic chain of events and its unremitting stress on the pancreas, resulting in diabetes. Assuming the preceding description of the present state of nutrition for pet cats is correct, how could this possibly be?
How and why would a multi-billion dollar US pet food industry "conspire" to foist essentially "poisonous" food off on cat owners, often at very high prices and at exclusive, inconvenient outlets such as veterinary facilities and pet stores? To begin to answer that question, we must go back, once again, into history. At the middle of the last century, there were no commercial pet food products to speak of.
Pet animals were fed from the table or the local butcher's discards. However, during the 50s and 60s, the market for convenient dog foods began to grow. Companies like Purina Mills, a cereal grain processing company, recognized this emerging market and began to make baked biscuits for dogs. Over time, Purina and other cereal-processing companies began producing kibbled dog food with the same technology used in making breakfast cereal for humans.
Because of their convenience and affordability, both types of food had appeal for dog owners and growing sales of these products encouraged additional output by these and a few smaller processors. Unfortunately, these early attempts to produce dog foods were driven entirely by a desire to find profitable uses for excess commodities, specifically corn and other grains as well as meat unfit for or unused for human consumption, rather than a desire to provide genuinely health-promoting foods for pet dogs.
Purina and other companies making kibbled dog food also began adding vitamins and minerals to their kibble, which was marketed as an adjunct to fresh meat or canned meat foods for completeness.
As decades passed, many dog owners began to favor kibbled dog food because of its economy, convenience and keeping qualities. Pet food-producing companies responded to this market demand by adding protein ingredients to their kibble in an attempt to produce a more complete dry food. Finally, the American Association of Feed Control Officials AAFCO , a regulatory body that then supervised the quality and safety of livestock feeds, agreed to accept responsibility for supervising pet foods as well.
For the first several years of this oversight responsibility, AAFCO reviewed available literature and compiled a list of minimum and maximum levels of key nutrients that must be present in a dog food labeled as complete and balanced. No actual feeding studies were required, but random samples of a company's foods this requirement applied to canned as well as dry foods were expected to meet the established minimums and maximums. Even though this was an important improvement in the assurance of the quality of these foods, their ingredient content continued, and continues to this day, to be ingredient-cost and ingredient-availability driven.
Meeting nutrient requirements is achieved by adding supplements when the ingredient mix that is most cost effective does not provide the right balance alone. Into this environment enters the cat as an increasingly "kept" pet for which owners began to clamor for complete and balanced commercial foods as well.
While it was understood by manufacturers that the cat had some unique nutritional requirements as a result of its status as an obligatory carnivore e. Certainly, the cat's completely unique metabolic machinery designed for high production of energy from protein and near exclusion of carbohydrate as an energy substrate was entirely ignored.
In fact, both canned and dry cat foods are the product of marketing and food technology considerations, not the science of feline nutrition. Witness the fact that canned and dry forms of the exact same formula of any brand with corresponding forms, have entirely different macronutrient profiles. Dry foods bear absolutely no nutritional resemblance to their corresponding canned version.
Why would different physical forms of the exact same formula, for the exact same "life stage," have such very different macronutrient contents? Do kittens and cats have different needs depending on whether they are eating canned or dry? The short answer is no, of course not. The cat has the exact same macronutient needs whatever form of food it consumes, so why the great difference in these formulas? The demands of food technology in the production a dry kibble using the process of extrusion, same as breakfast cereal for humans dictate the macronutrient profile of dry pet foods.
Extrusion is the expansion and "popping" of kibbles through a high heat, high pressure process that will not occur without substantial starch content in the slurry that is fed into the extruder. A canned food formula, sent through an extruder, will end up a damp puddle the end of the machine, rather than fluffy, air filled kibbles ready for drying.
So, tons of corn, rice, wheat, oats, barley and other grains the less expensive the better, of course are added to the meat meal and low volume ingredients that comprise dry pet foods because the product form will not materialize otherwise. Further, dried kibble is almost completely unpalatable for the typical cat.
This is not surprising; one would expect that this species would recognize high cereal foods as "not food. Few pet owners, including those adamantly opposed to the feeding of raw foods to their pets, would be so complacent about commercial dry pet foods if they witnessed the production and application of this ingredient.
Thus, cats are essentially "tricked" into the consumption of a food they would not ordinarily consume, through the application of tasty outer coatings.
One is reminded of the application of candy coatings on the outside of children's breakfast cereal to enhance the consumption of relatively low nutritional-value breakfast foods. Now, contrast the formulation and production of dry cat foods with the formulation and production of canned or "wet foods.
Pates, even chunked, sliced, or grilled meats, go perfectly well into a sealed can that is then sterilized in a high-heat retort. Happily, high meat formulas are highly palatable for cats, who recognize such ingredients as appropriate foods for their nutritional needs, which they usually eat happily without additional palatability enhancers added. This is quite different from the macronutrient profile of dry foods, which are slave to the food technology of extrusion and the resulting need for intense palatability enhancement with "sugar coatings" of fermented digest post production.
The ingredients and macronutrients of the different forms of cat food are dictated by the requirements of food technology, not the science of feline nutrition. Many pet owners believe that commercial pet foods are safe and efficacious to feed to their pets because they have been "feeding trial tested" and shown to be complete and balanced by this method.
The AAFCO statement on many pet foods bears testament to the fact that the contents of the can or bag have undergone some kind of feeding trial that guarantees that the food in the container is good for your pet.
This statement is extremely misunderstood by most pet owners and misleads them into believing that only good can come of feeding the product on which this statement appears. To illustrate this problem, let's go back in recent history. In approximately , a young cardiology resident at the University of California at Davis by the name of Dr. Paul Pion noticed something rather interesting.
One of his feline patients, a cat he was treating for congestive cardiomyopathy, had an extremely low serum taurine level. Taurine is an essential amino acid in the cat meaning it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by the cat to meet its ongoing needs and must be supplied in the diet , known to be required for proper eye and cardiac function in this and many other species.
Pion's patient was fed an exclusive diet of a "high quality" premium commercial canned cat food, which should have supplied all of the taurine this cat required. After all, the food was "feeding trial tested" and shown to be complete and balanced for all life stages in these feeding trials. Surely this cat's heart disease was not due to consumption of a taurine-deficient diet. Over the months following his initial observation, Dr. Pion supplemented his original patient's diet with taurine and began to investigate other clinical cases of feline congestive cardiomyopathy.
To his amazement, Dr. Pion discovered that virtually all of the cases he studied had low taurine levels in their bloodstream, and many of them improved dramatically, even returned to normal, when supplemented with taurine in addition to their regular diets, which were always canned commercial pet foods.
Most of these cats were fed diets that had been "feeding-trial-tested" and shown to be complete and balanced for the appropriate life stage by this method. How could foods produced by the "best" pet food manufacturers and tested according to the most stringent AAFCO guidelines be the direct cause of such pathologic deficiency in pet cats? The answer, although not immediately evident, became clear over the first few months of Dr. The taurine in the implicated diets, often tested in the laboratory as adequate for the health of cats, was somehow not available to those cats when consumed in those diets.
The processing of the canned formulations in the retort somehow "inactivated" the taurine contained in the foods so that it tested as adequate using laboratory methods, but in the "ultimate laboratory," the cat itself, the dietary taurine was not properly recognized and utilized. If this were the case, however, why didn't the feeding trials of these foods disclose this terrible flaw? Because the vaunted feeding trials of which the companies and AAFCO are so proud are of such limited duration, usually no longer than 6 months, that only severe inadequacies and acute toxicities would ever be disclosed through them.
Further, had cats on a six-month feeding trial of a taurine-deficient diet developed congestive cardiomyopathy during the test period, it is extremely unlikely, prior to the problem discovered by Dr. Pion, that anyone would have recognized the condition as diet-related. Most cats would not become sufficiently deficient to develop overt clinical signs during the feeding trial.
Thus, deficient diets were produced, feeding-trial-tested, and marketed for many years, causing the deaths of many cats, before a fortuitous turn of events and the keen observations of a young veterinarian allowed the problem to be identified and corrected. The pet food companies and their "rigorous testing for safety and efficacy" allowed the development of a fatal disease in thousands of cats, and that had to be discovered and corrected through the efforts of an outsider who was not even a nutritionist.
The "scientific teams" within the implicated companies themselves were stunned by the discovery.